California State Military Department
The California State Military Museum
Preserving California's Military Heritage
California and the Civil War
1st Regiment of Cavalry, California Volunteers

 
Introduction First Regiment of Cavalry
Extracted from “Records of California Men in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 To 1867.” 1890. pp 68-86.
Transcribed by Kathy Sedler.

            This regiment was organized under the first call of the President, on the State of California, for troops to assist in suppressing rebellion, the first man having been enlisted in it on the tenth of August, 1861.  The name of this man was Charles S. Thompson, who enlisted in Company B, at Folsom, on above mentioned date.

            The organization first consisted of a battalion of five companies, which were assembled in a camp near Lake Merritt, Oakland, called “Camp Merchant,” where the companies were mustered into the United States service on various dates, as shown heretofore, between August fifteenth and October 31, 1861.

            The first commanding officer was Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin F. Davis, an officer of the regular army, having been admitted to the U.S. Military Academy in 1850, from the State of Mississippi.  He was made Brevet Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, July 1, 1854; Second Lieutenant, First Dragoons, third of March, 1855; First Lieutenant, ninth of January, 1860, and Captain, July 30, 1861.  His regiment became the First Cavalry August 3, 1861.  He was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel, First California Cavalry, August 19, 1861, and resigned as such November 1, 1861, returning to duty in his old regiment.  Was brevetted Major, fifteenth of September, 1862, for meritorious service at Harper’s Ferry, and was killed at the battle of Beverly Ford, Va., June 9, 1863.  He was succeeded in command by Major Edward E. Eyre, who was immediately promoted to be Lieutenant-Colonel, and commanded the regiment until his resignation was accepted, November 30, 1862.  During the year 1863, the battalion was made a full regiment of twelve companies, and Major David Fergusson was promoted to be its Colonel.  He was dismissed from the service November 6, 1863, by War Department Special Orders No. 323.  He commanded the regiment during the month of July, 1862, as Major only.  November 6, 1863, Oscar M. Brown was promoted to the Colonelcy, and commanded until his resignation was accepted, December 31, 1865.  During the balance of the time, until the regiment was finally mustered out, it was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Clarence E. Bennett and Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel William McCleave.  McCleave was commissioned Colonel of the regiment, but was never mustered as such, owing to the fact that the regiment had fallen below the minimum required by law.  After the battalion was organized it was sent to the southern part of the State, three companies being stationed at Camp Latham, near Los Angeles, and two at Camp Carleton, near San Bernadino.  The battalion remained in the southern part of the State until the spring of 1862, when it became part of the “California Column,” and formed the advance of that Column during the march to New Mexico and Texas.

            The general history of the regiment during the march of the California Column being identical with the history of that expedition, which has been heretofore published, will not be repeated in this place.  The five companies first organized were mustered out August 31, 1864, the terms of service of most of the men having expired.  Two new companies, B and C, were organized in New Mexico, by consolidation of the few men whose terms had not expired, and by new enlistments, and two new companies were enlisted in California, A and E, which, upon the completion of their organization, were sent to Arizona.

            The following events in the history of the regiment are gleaned from various reports, orders, letters, and muster rolls:

            Company A left Camp Carleton, San Bernadino County, Cal., March 1, 1862.  Arrived at Stanwix Rancho, A.T., March 16, 1862.  Distance, three hundred and sixty miles.  Private Semmilrogge (patrol) wounded March 29, 1862, six miles above Stanwix Rancho, on the Gila River.  Left Stanwix Rancho, April 8, 1862.  Arrived at Picacho Pass, A.T., April 15, 1862.  Distance, one hundred and fifty-five miles.  Detachment of company had an engagement with Rebels at Picacho Pass, April 15, 1862, in which Lieutenant Barrett, First Regiment Cavalry, California Volunteers, and Private George Johnson, Company A, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, were killed, and Corporal James Botsford, Company A, was wounded.  Left Picacho Pass, A.T., April sixteenth, and arrived at Pimos Villages, A.T., April 24, 1862.  Left Pimos Villages, April twenty-fourth.  Arrived at Kenyon Station, April 26, 1862.  Laid over one day.  Returned to Pimos Villages, April 29, 1862.  Distance, one hundred and thirty-two miles.

            The fight described above was with an advance party of Colonel Baylor’s Texan Rangers, under Captain Hunter.  The companies of the First Cavalry were then assembled at Pimos Villages, where an earthwork was thrown up and named Fort Barrett, in honor of the young Lieutenant who was killed in the fight at Picacho.  They remained there until the twenty-fourth of May, when Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre was ordered to reoccupy old Fort Breckenridge, near the confluence of the Gila and San Pedro Rivers, Arizona, the name of which was changed to Fort Stanford, in honor of the Governor of California.  The regiment having arrived on the Rio Grande, and the Confederate troops having been driven out of the country, the companies were stationed at various posts and camps, employed in scouting after Indians, etc.

            Report of an expedition to Fort Davis, Texas:

 CAMP ON RIO GRANDE, September 2, 1862.

                LIEUTENANT:  I have the honor to state that, pursuant to instructions received from General James H. Carleton, commanding Column from California, I left this camp at 3 o’clock P.M., August twenty-third, en route to Fort Davis; encamped at 8 o’clock the same evening, having marched fifteen miles.  Started at daybreak of the twenty-fourth and arrived at Eagle Springs at 9:30 A.M. – seventeen miles.  Found the springs filled with rubbish and carrion; by cleaning them out, succeeded in obtaining water for men and animals.  There being no grass in the vicinity, I left the springs at 4 P.M.  Marched about five miles, and made a dry camp – grass abundant and good.  Started at daybreak and marched twenty miles to Van Horn’s Wells; found these wells entirely filled up.  Cleaned out one of them, but found it impossible to obtain sufficient water for the men.  Many of the horses being unable to proceed further, I thought it best to go on from here with twenty men and picked horses, taking the ambulance with me.  Accordingly I directed Lieutenant Haden to retrace his steps to Eagle Springs with the remainder of the detachment, to clean out the springs thoroughly and remain there eight days, unless he received other orders from me.  If, at the expiration of eight days, I should not have returned or sent back an express, I directed him to return to the river and wait for me there two days, and then proceed up the river and report to General Carleton.  I left Van Horn’s Wells at about 4 o’clock P.M. and arrived at “Dead Man’s Hole” at about 2 A.M.  Found sufficient water there for the animals, but not enough for a company – distance, thirty-five miles.  Started at 6:30 A.M. and arrived at Barrel Springs at 3 P.M., having halted on the road to graze the animals.  Found water enough at these springs for one company.  Remained here that night and on the next afternoon sent forward Corporal Bartlett, with one private and the Mexican guide, to find out the condition of affairs at FortDavis, distant eighteen miles.

                They returned about noon the next day, having performed their duty in such a manner that if the fort had been occupied by the Confederate States troops their (Corporal Bartlett and party’s) presence could not have been discovered.  They reported the fort unoccupied, and I, thinking it best not to send back for the company, on account of the scarcity of water, proceeded to the fort.  I found it entirely deserted, but in one of the buildings of the Overland Mail Company I found the dead body of a man lying on the floor.  He had been shot through the body with a bullet, and had an arrow wound on the head and one on the arm.  From the appearance of the room I think it had been used by the Confederate troops as a hospital, and this man left there sick and afterwards killed by the Indians.  I had the body buried.  The fort appears to have been garrisoned by the Confederate State troops since their first appearance in the country, by at least a portion of one company.  It also seemed to have been used as a rendezvous for sick soldiers, but they had all left with the last detachment for San Antonio.  The following is a description of the buildings at the fort:

                Five company quarters, about 80 by 25 feet, one story high, built of stone, thatched roof.  Four of these buildings are in fair condition; the roof, doors, and windows of one have been burned.

                One guard-house, about 80 by 25 feet; building stone; roof, doors, and windows burned.

                One Quartermaster store-house, about 100 by 20 feet, built of stone; roof, doors and windows entirely destroyed; surrounded by several small buildings, use not known.

                One wooden or slab building, 30 by 16 feet, thatched roof, used as an Adjutant’s office.

                One wooden building, 36 by 27 feet, with kitchen and several small outbuildings, supposed to have been the commanding officer’s quarters.  On this building the flag was hoisted and kept up during one day.

                One wooden building, 48 by 22 feet, with the kitchen and outhouse attached, supposed to have been officer’s quarters.

                One wooden building, 22 by 12 feet, with one small outbuilding, 10 by 14.

                One wooden building, 36 by 18.

                One building, 14 by 12.

                One slab building, 40 by 15 feet.

                One slab building, 50 by 14 feet.

                One slab building, 20 by 12 feet.

                One slab building, 20 by 12 feet.

                One slab building, 30 by 15 feet.

                One slab outhouse, 10 by 12 feet.

                Seven small slab houses.

                One slab stable, 50 by 14.

                One stone and mud house.

                Three small slab buildings.

                These are estimated measurements, as I had no other means of doing.  One overland mail station, consisting of house, store-houses, shop, stables, saddlery, granary, etc.

                One adobe building, formerly used as a store.  Many of the doors and windows have been destroyed.  Some seem to have been hauled off, others burned.  One wagon stands loaded with lumber.

                I have heard as report, in fact, that the entire fort was sold by Confederate States officers to some party at Del Norte, Mexico.  Property consists of some iron in Quartermaster’s store-house, some one hundred horseshoes, two old citizen wagons, several wagons and cart-wheels, empty barrels, several chains, many hospital bedsteads, but all broken or in a dilapidated condition.  I started from the fort on my return at daylight on the thirtieth and marched to Dead Man’s Hold, watered the animals, and made a dry camp in the prairie.  Left camp at 9 A.M. and marched about ten miles, when an Indian made his appearance with a white flag, followed by five others, all mounted.  I tried to hold a talk with them, but they seemed unwilling to have anything to say, they being followed by twenty-five or thirty more mounted men, and still farther behind by a large party on foot; and it being evident that their only intention was to gain time and delay us until they could surround us, I ordered the men to fire upon them.  A fight immediately ensued, they making every effort to surround us, coming towards us in every direction, a large proportion of them mounted.

                Wishing to get rid of the footmen, I made a running fight of it, expecting the mounted men to follow, which they did for a short distance, but finding it too hot for them they returned.  They left four men dead on the field, two of them the leaders, respectively, of the mounted and foot men.  I have good reason to believe that at least twenty were wounded.  I had two men wounded, one slightly and one painfully, by a pistol ball in the shoulder.  I had also one horse wounded.  I then came on to Eagle Springs, where I arrived at 11 o’clock P.M., watered all my animals, and found that Lieutenant Haden, with the remainder of the command, had left for the river several days before.  Camped for the remainder of the night, and on the next day proceeded to the river, arriving there about 5 o’clock P.M., and found Lieutenant Haden with the remainder of the command, he stating that he could not find sufficient water at Eagle Springs for the use of the animals.  I omitted in the foregoing report to state that about ten miles from Van Horn’s Wells I met two Mexicans coming this way.  I arrested them and brought them to this camp, where I released them, and they went on up the river, and will report to General Carleton in person.

                                I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E.D. SHIRLAND,
Captain Company C, First Cavalry, California Volunteers.

Lieut. B.C. CUTLER, Acting Assist. Adjt.-Gen., Column from California, Franklin, Tex.

 

 

            On the eleventh of October, 1862, General Carleton ordered an expedition consisting of Companies A and D, First California Cavalry, to Dog Canon, N.M., against the Mescalero Apaches, to cooperate with an expedition under Colonel Christopher Carson (Kit Carson), who was ordered, with five companies of his regiment, First New Mexico Cavalry, to reoccupy Fort Stanton, N.M.  As a result of this expedition, the Mescalero Apaches were completely subdued, and four hundred of them were taken prisoners.

            January 12, 1863. – Company A left Las Cruces, N.M., and arrived at Fort McLean, N.M., January nineteenth.  On the twentieth Captain McCleave and twenty rank and file proceeded to Pinos Altos Mines, and attacked a party of Mangus Colorado’s Apaches, killing eleven and wounding the chief’s wife.  January twenty-seventh left Fort McLean for headwaters of Gila and Francisco Rivers, in accordance with Special Orders No. 5, District of Arizona.  Returned to Fort McLean February fifth.  On the ninth of February Captain McCleave and thirty men went on a scout to headwaters of Miembres River.  Returned on fourteenth of February.  On sixteenth started for new site of Fort West.  Camped at Bonnevill’s Depot, on Gila River, from eighteenth to twenty-fourth, when camp was moved to Fort West.  Distance marched, five hundred and seven miles.

            January 17, 1863. – Captain E.D. Shirland, Company C, First California Cavalry, brought Mangus Colorado, an Apache chief, into Fort McLean a prisoner.  On the morning of the eighteenth, in attempting to escape, Mangus was killed by the guard.  On the afternoon of March 22, 1863, the Gila Apaches made a descent upon the public herd, which was grazing near Fort West, N.M., and succeeded in running off some sixty head of horses.  The Indians numbered -----.  At 8 P.M. the gallant Major William McCleave, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, started in pursuit with a command consisting of Lieutenants French and Lattimer, First California Cavalry, forty men of Company A, twenty-five men of Company B, and fourteen men of Company C, all of First Cavalry.  Major McCleave followed the trail of the Indians in a westerly direction about seventy miles, and down the Gila five miles, then across the divide to Rio Negro, where he arrived at 9 A.M. of the twenty-sixth, and then moved up the stream a short distance.  Signs at this point indicated the close proximity of Indians and a rancheria.  During twilight the command moved up the stream two miles and made camp.  Thirty men, mounted on the most serviceable animals, under Lieutenant Lattimer, and thirty under Major McCleave, started in search of the rancheria, leaving Lieutenant French in charge of the camp.  Leaving camp at 8 o’clock P.M., the command ascended a mountain on the west side of the stream, and traveled about twelve miles without meeting any success.  Here the command rested from 1 o’clock until dawn of the twenty-seventh, it raining all the time.  When light enough to see, Major McCleave discovered, from an elevated position, trees which indicated presence of water, and a horse grazing in the neighborhood also indicated that the rancheria was near by.  Lieutenant Lattimer was ordered ahead with his command; discovered rancheria and gallantly charged upon it.  Part of the dismounted men immediately commenced gathering in and guarding the horses to prevent the escape of the Indians, while other were skirmishing and fighting on the bluffs.  The fight lasted for twenty minutes, and resulted in the complete routing of the Indians, the capture of all our own horses that could be found, and many Indian horses; the killing of twenty-five Indians, and the complete destruction of the rancheria, provisions, and all they possessed.  Private Hall, of Company B, First California Cavalry, was wounded in the fight.  The command then returned to camp, and soon after noon started on return trip by a route supposed to be more direct than the one by which the Indians were followed from the fort.  This route led up a canon, from the sides of which the Indians attacked the rear guard of the command, wounding Lieutenant French, killing two horses and wounding one.  As soon as the attack was made, the soldiers ascended the perpendicular walls of the canon by climbing one over the other.  This was done amidst a shower of arrows.  As soon as they reached the top the Indians fled in every direction.  The superiority of the Californians over the Apaches, at their own style of fighting, was shown in the case of Corporal Ellis, of Company A, who crawled to a rock, behind which was an Indian, and, giving a short cough, the Indian raised his head to discover his course, when a bullet from Ellis’ rifle dashed through his brain.  The Indians lost in this attack three killed.  On the thirtieth provisions giving out, a Sergeant and five men were sent to the fort for a supply.  Until their return the party subsisted on horse flesh.

            On the fourth of April the command reached the fort.  On the fifth, Private Hall died from the wounds received in the fight.  Indian loss, twenty-eight killed; troops, one.

            Copy of a letter to Captain Pishon, who was sent as an escort to Surveyor-General Clark to the newly discovered gold fields, near where the City of Prescott, Arizona, now stands:

 HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO,

SANTA FE, N.M., June 22, 1863.

Capt. NATHANIEL J. PISHON, Company D, First California Cavalry, Fort Craig, N.M.:

                CAPTAIN:  I send you a map of New Mexico, on which I desire that you will trace your route to and from the new gold fields, in obedience to orders to go as an escort to Surveyor-General Clark.

                Have great care taken of your animals.  When you arrive at the new diggings, I want each of our men to prospect and wash, and I want you to report the exact time they severally work, and the amount of gold each one obtains in return for his labor during that time.  Much reliance will be placed upon these statistics.  The people must not be deceived, nor inveigled into that distant country without knowing well what they may expect to find. 

                If the country is as rich as represented – and of this I have no doubt – there will, on your return, be a revolution in matters here which no man now can ever dream of.  I have written to the authorities at Washington that if the country is as rich as reported, on your return, I shall send two companies of California troops to establish a post in the heart of the gold region.  Your company may, perhaps, be one of them, so you will have an eye to the best location of a post for one company of infantry and one of cavalry.

                In returning by the Whipple route to Albuquerque, mark the country well for the whole way to the gold region.  Take your best men with you, and things to wash with.  Send me a few specimens for the War Department on your return.  Wishing you good fortune,

                                I am, Captain, very respectfully your obedient servant,

JAMES H. CARLETON,
Brigadier-General Commanding.

            Company B marched from Fort West, New Mexico, June 11, 1863, en route for Fort Stanton, New Mexico; arrived June 29, 1863.  Distance, two hundred and fifty-eight miles.

            Captain Fritz and twenty-five men of Company B started in pursuit of Indians from Las Cruces, New Mexico, June 17, 1863.  Proceeded to six miles above San Diego Mountains, and returned June 19, 1863.  Distance, seventy miles.

            July 4, 1863. – Captain N.J. Pishon, Company D, First California Cavalry, with twenty-seven men of his company, pursued a party of eight Indians who had driven off one hundred and four Government mules from Fort Craig; overtook them a few miles from the fort and, killing four Indians, recovered the mules.  Captain J.L. Barbey, who accompanied the command, was shot through the wrist by an arrow; Privates Jackson and Bancroft were also slightly wounded.

            July 12, 1863. – Captain A.H. French, Company A, First California Cavalry, with twenty-seven men of his company, attacked and routed, near Fort Thorn, a band of Apache Indians, supposed to number sixty warriors.  Indian loss, ten killed and four horses captured.  Sergeant Walsh and Farrier Burns were wounded.

            July 22, 1863. – Captain Emil Fritz, First California Cavalry, with a detachment of California and New Mexico cavalry, left Fort Stanton for the Rio Pecos to chastise a band of two hundred Indians who had attacked Lieutenant Marques of the First New Mexico Infantry.  After following the Indians for forty-five miles Captain Fritz came upon their camp, and captured two horses, six mules, and all the plunder of their camp; the Indians made their escape.

            Remarks on Return of Company A, First Cavalry, for August, 1863. – The company left Fort West, N.M., June 27, 1863, on a scout for the extermination of the Miembres River Apaches.  On the afternoon of July fifth, in a skirmish with Apaches, Sergeant Walsh and Farrier Burns were wounded, and one horse killed.  Traveled from July seventh to fourteenth after Indians.  Returned to Fort Thorn on Rio Grande.  On the nineteenth, started on another scout through the mountains in pursuit of said Indians, over the wildest, most broken kind of country.  Distance traveled, four hundred and ninety miles.

            The company left the Cienega de Los Apaches on the first of August, and arrived at Fort Thorn.  On the fourth and fifth, Captain French and Second Lieutenant Allyne took detachments of the company up and down the Rio Grande on a scout.  Left Fort Thorn on the ninth, and arrived at the Rio Miembres on the evening of the tenth.  The company, in different detachments, has been out on several scouts in different directions during the month.  Distance traveled, two hundred and forty miles.

            January 14, 1864. – Sergeant Joseph Felmer, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, reports that he recovered seven head of cattle while in pursuit of a party of Indians, and turned them over to Don Pablo, of La Joya, N.M.

            On the third of April, 1864, Captain French and twenty-five enlisted men of Company A, First California Cavalry, left San Elizario, Texas, on an expedition down the Rio Grande.  On the fifteenth instant surprised a party of Texas Rebels, at Spencer’s Ranch, opposite Presidio Del Norte, commanded by Captain Skillman, C.S.A., numbering ten in all.  Captain Skillman and one man killed, two mortally wounded, two escaped across the river, one of them wounded, and four taken prisoners, with horses, arms, ammunition, and camp equipage of the whole party.  The detachment arrived at San Elizario, Texas, April 24, 1864, after a hard march of four hundred and ninety-nine miles.  No casualties in company.

            April 7, 1864. – Capt. James H. Whitlock, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, with a command of twenty-six enlisted men of Company F and twenty enlisted men of Company I, under Lieutenant Barkell, and ten enlisted men of Company C, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, attacked about two hundred and fifty Indians near Mount Grey, or Sierra Bonita, Arizona, and after a spirited fight of over one hour routed the Indians, killing twenty-one of them, left on the ground, and wounding a large number.  Forty-five head of horses and mules were captured from the Indians, ad all their provisions and camp equipage destroyed.

            Ten enlisted men of Company C, First California Cavalry, with a detachment of infantry, left Camp Miembres, N.M., March 28, 1864, on a scout against the Apaches.  Returned April twelfth, having destroyed a rancheria, killed twenty-one Indians, and taken forty head of horses and mules.

            Remarks on Return of Company A, First Cavalry, for May, 1864. – The company has been engaged during the month on scouts, patrol, and picket duty.  On the nineteenth instant the men of the company on picket duty fell in with a party of twenty-six Texas Union refugees and deserters, who were in a state of exhaustion and starvation.  On the twentieth instant Captain French, with thirteen privates and provisions, left the post for the relief of the Texan refugees and deserters, near Fort Quitman, and returned to the post on the twenty-fifth instant.  Distance traveled by each horse in the company during the month, three hundred and fifty miles.

            During the month of May, 1864, an expedition, consisting of detachments of Company F, First California Cavalry, and Company  K, Fifth California Infantry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson H. Davis, Assistant Inspector-General, U.S.A., assisted by Captain Tidball, Fifth Infantry, and two commissioned officers and one hundred and two enlisted men, started from Fort Bowie, Arizona, on a scout after Indians.  On the twenty-fifth they surprised a rancheria and killed one Indian.  Later, the same day, killed one Indian and captured one.  On the twenty-sixth came upon a rancheria, killed one Indian, and destroyed several acres of corn.  On same day one woman and two children were captured.  On the twenty-eighth captured five women and two children.  On the twenty-ninth the command surprised a rancheria, killed thirty-six Indians, wounded four, and took two prisoners.  Captured six hundred and sixty ($660) dollars in gold coin, one Sharp’s carbine, one Colt’s revolver, one shotgun, one saddle, one thousand pounds of mescal, and a lot of horse equipments, powder, powder horns, etc.  Sergeant Charles Brown, of Company K, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, is mentioned in Captain Tidball’s report for his zeal and energy in this scout.

            Remarks on Return of Company A, for June, 1864. – The company has been engaged during the month on patrol and picket duty, and assisting Union refugees to the post who were in a state of destitution.  Distance traveled by each animal, three hundred miles.

            Remarks on Return of Company D, First Cavalry, for June, 1864. – Corporal Smith and three privates, while on escort to Major Willis, First Infantry, California Volunteers, to Francisco River, had a skirmish with Indians, in which one Indian was killed by Corporal Smith and one by Private Gillin.

            Remarks on Return of Company H, First Cavalry, for July, 1864. – The company left Tucson, A.T., June 5, 1864; arrived at Camp Miembres, N.M., June 15, 1864.  On June 20, 1864, Captain Campbell, Lieutenant Billings, and thirty-four men, together with a detachment of Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, under command of Captain Whitlock, Fifth Infantry, went on a scout after Indians in the Corralitas, Sonora.  Captured three Apaches; returned on the twenty-eighth day of June, 1864.  On June 30, 1864, started for Los Pimos, N.M., to take post, in obedience to Special Orders No. 37, Headquarters Department of Arizona Territory.

            August --, 1864. – Major Thomas J. Blakeney, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, on a scout of thirty days after Apache Indians, killed ten and captured two Indians, and destroyed twenty acres of corn and large quantities of pumpkins, beans, etc.

            August --, 1864. – The command, consisting in part of a detachment of Company F, First Cavalry, which left Fort Cummings on the fifth day of August, on a scout to Lake Guzman, killed one Indian near the Florida Mountains.  Very few Indians were seen, they having evidently deserted the country on the approach of the troops, who, on this scout marched twelve hundred miles.

            Remarks on Muster Roll of Company H, First Cavalry, for November and December, 1864. – Lieutenant Samburn, with fifty men, on expedition against Apache Indians, under the command of Colonel Oscar M. Brown, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, for sixty days.  Captured four squaws.  Distance marched, twelve hundred miles, from the first of October to the thirtieth of November, 1864.  Lieutenant Billings, with ten men, on scout against Apache Indians, twenty days.  Distance marched, six hundred miles.  Lieutenant Samburn, with ten men, on scout against Apache Indians, three days.  Distance marched, one hundred and fifty miles.

            During November, 1864, an expedition was sent out against the Comanche and Kiowa Indians, under Colonel Christopher Carson (Kit Carson), First New Mexico Cavalry, consisting of fourteen commissioned officers and three hundred and twenty enlisted men, including Companies B, K, and M, First California Cavalry, one company of First California Infantry, two companies of First New Mexico Cavalry, and seventy-five friendly Ute Indians.

            On the twenty-fifth of November they attacked a Kiowa village, of about one hundred and fifty lodges, near the old adobe fort on the Canadian River in northern Texas; and after a severe fight compelled the Indians to retreat, with a loss of sixty killed and wounded.  The village was then destroyed.  The engagement commenced at 8:12 A.M., and lasted, without intermission, until sunset.  In this fight, Privates John O’Connell and John Sullivan, of Company M, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, were killed, and Corporal Newman, Privates Thomas Briggs, J. Jameson, -- Mapes, Jasper Winant, J. Horsley, of Company B; Holygrafer, of Company G, First Cavalry, California Volunteers; Antonio Duro and Antonio Sanches, of Company M, and H. Romero, of Company I, First Cavalry, New Mexico Volunteers, were wounded.  Four Utes were wounded.

            Colonel Carson, in his report, mentions the following officers as deserving the highest praise:  Major McCleave, Captain Fritz, and Lieutenant Heath, of First Cavalry, California Volunteers; Captains Dens and Berney, First Cavalry, New Mexico Volunteers; Lieutenant Pettis, First Infantry, California Volunteers; Lieutenant Edgar, First Cavalry, New Mexico Volunteers; and Assistant Surgeon Geo. S. Courtright, United States Volunteers.

            The command destroyed one hundred and fifty lodges of the best manufacture, a large amount of dried meats, berries, buffalo robes, powder, cooking utensils, etc.; also a buggy and spring wagon, the property of “Sierrito,” or “Little Mountain,” the Kiowa chief.

            November 27, 1864. – Colonel Oscar M. Brown, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, with one hundred men, returned from a scout to the Apache country.  Four squaws were captured by Colonel Brown’s command.  Although this scout, of nearly sixty days, was unsuccessful, it was one of the hardest of the year.

            Remarks on Muster Roll of Company L, First Cavalry, for January and February, 1865. – On February seventeenth a party of seventy or eighty Apache Indians attacked the Vedette Station, at Fort Buchanan (six men of Company L).  At the first fire they wounded the Corporal in charge, and then set fire to the building.  The soldiers, when the roof began to fall in, broke from the burning house and fought their way through the Indians.  One man, who was out hunting, is missing.  The Indians captured the horses and stores.  Two Indians known to be killed.

            During the month of February, 1865, a man named Leaton, who had been a Colonel in the Confederate army, was given a Colonel’s commission in the Mexican army by President Juarez, with permission to raise a guerrilla regiment to fight the French, who were then occupying Mexico under the Emperor Maximillian.

            Colonel Leaton established his headquarters at the town of Guadalupe, on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande, about twenty-five miles below the town of San Elizario, Texas, which was garrisoned by Company C, First California Cavalry, under command of First Lieutenant R.H. Orton, of Company F, of same regiment.  Colonel Leaton, after establishing his headquarters, sent recruiting agents to the American side of the river, and by offering extraordinary inducements in the way of bounties, offices in the regiment, and the payment of large sums for such horses, arms, etc., as they might bring with them, caused a large number of the Union soldiers to desert and join his regiment.  Lieutenant Orton, after learning what was going on, resolved to break up the organization or drive them away from the vicinity of his post; and taking from ten to twenty-five men each time, made five raids into Mexico, twice surrounding their rendezvous and surprising their party, and once, with ten men, charging into a party of fourteen, killing one, and capturing, at different times, a large number of deserters and recovering a large amount of Government property.  He made a report of the transactions of Colonel Leaton, which report was sent by General Carleton to the President of Mexico, who thereupon gave orders for the disbandment of the regiment and the arrest of Colonel Leaton.  Lieutenant Orton was promoted to Captain of Company M of his regiment, on account of the above mentioned service.

            In the month of May, 1865, Company F, First Cavalry, was attached to an expedition under Colonel “Kit” Carson, which was ordered to proceed to the Comanche country, and build a fort on the road leading from Santa Fe to the States, for the protection of trains passing back and forth through that dangerous country, and to escort trains through the part most exposed to Indian depredations.  The command consisted of three hundred and two officers and enlisted men.  Lieutenant Orton, of Company F, was Adjutant, and Lieutenant Savage, of same company, was Quartermaster and Commissary.  A stone fort was built at a place called Cedar Bluffs, in that part of Indian Territory now known as “No Man’s Land,” and named Fort Nichols.  On the fifteenth of June, a train, which Company F, First Cavalry, was escorting from Fort Nichols to Fort Larned, Kansas, was attacked by about fifty mounted Comanche warriors.  The attack was repulsed by the company, which followed the retreating savages several miles, killing and wounding six Indians.  There was no loss to the company, though a Mexican herder was killed in the first attack on the train.  The company remained at Fort Nichols from May until October, and assisted in escorting every train safely through the country.

            On the fifteenth of June, 1865, Major Emil Fritz, First Cavalry, with Captain B.F. Fox, Company H, First Cavalry, went in pursuit of a band of eighty or ninety Navajoes, who had escaped from Fort Sumner.  On the twentieth captured their camp, with their supplies, several animals, and one Indian child.  The Indians escaped among the rocks on the mountain, their camp being in a very rough canon.  This command suffered greatly for want of water.

            Companies H and M cooperated in the above mentioned expedition, by guarding the crossings of the Rio Grande.

            Remarks on Muster Roll of Company G, First Cavalry, for July and August, 1865. – Captain Gorham, with a detachment of his company, left Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on June 13, 1865, in pursuit of runaway Indians (Navajoes) – captives on the Bosque Rodondo Reservation.  Fought them on the first day of July, 1865, near the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, killing two, and capturing one thousand head of sheep, forty-seven horses, and destroying their village.  Traveled about twenty-five miles a day.  Total distance traveled, about one thousand and twenty-five miles, in forty-three days.

            Remarks on Muster Roll of Company H, First Cavalry, for July and August, 1865. – Lieutenant Billings and nine men had a fight with Indians near San Andreas Pass, July 1, 1865.  There were ten Indians killed.  Private Abner C. Lull, of Company H, was severely wounded in the groin; one horse killed.  Distance marched, six hundred miles.  Lieutenant Samburn, with twenty men, started after Indians July 20, 1865, with ten days’ rations.  Distance marched, four hundred miles.

            On the twelfth day of August Lieutenant Billings, with twenty men, had a fight with Indians near White Mountains, in which four Indians were killed.  Distance marched, three hundred miles.

            Remarks on Muster Roll of Company H, First Cavalry, for September and October, 1865. – Lieutenant Billings, with thirty men, had a fight with Indians near La Monica Springs, September 4, 1865, in which three Indians were killed.  Distance marched, two hundred miles.

            Lieutenant Billings, with sixteen men as escort for Dr. Courtright to Canada Alamosa, from September eighteenth to twenty-second.  Distance marched, one hundred miles.

            Captain Samburn, with ten men on scout after Indians, from September twenty-seventh to October second.  Distance marched, one hundred and eighty miles.

            Captain Samburn and Lieutenant Billings, with fifty-one enlisted men, on scout after Indians from October sixteenth to twenty-sixth.  Distance marched, two hundred and twenty miles.

            Company B, First Cavalry, left Fort Sumner, N.M., November 8, 1865, pursuant to Special Orders No. 28, c.s., Headquarters Fort Sumner, N.M., on a scout after Mescalero Apaches, through the White and Sacramento Mountains.  Distance traveled, seven hundred and fifty-eight miles.

            The company left Fort Stanton, N.M., December 2, 1865, to continue the scout after the Apaches through the White and Sacramento Mountains, and returned to camp, near the oost, December 23, 1865.  Distance traveled, three hundred and twenty-one miles.

            Remarks on Muster Roll of Company L, First Cavalry, for November and December, 1865. – November first, Lieutenant Norton and thirty men (Major James Gorman, commanding), on a scout after Indians.  They attacked and destroyed an Indian rancheria, killed seven and wounded a number of Indians.  Captured four horses and two herds of cattle.  Destroyed the provisions, houses, and building.  No injuries to any of our men.

            Remarks on Muster Roll of Company G, First Cavalry, for March and April, 1866. – Captain Gorham and a detachment of twenty-five men of the company, were on a scout for twenty-five days in March and April, 1866.  Killed two Indians, wounded four, and took eight prisoners.  Whole distance traveled, four hundred and one miles.

            During the month of January, 1866, word was received at Fort Selden, New Mexico, that a large band of Apache Indians had taken possession of the town of Janos, Mexico.  Whereupon Colonel Edward B. Willis, commanding the post, resolved to go to the relief of the town.  He organized an expedition consisting of fifty infantrymen and twenty-five picked men of Company M, First California Cavalry, under Captain R.H. Orton of that company.  The expedition sought, by traveling nights and concealing itself during the daytime, to surprise the enemy.  On the tenth day the command came in sight of the town, about daylight, and scouts were sent forward to learn the situation of affairs, when, to the great disappointment of all in the expedition, it was found that the Indians had in some way been apprised of the approach of the troops and had fled to the mountains.  The inhabitants of the town were very grateful to the Union troops, for it was owing to their approach that the Indians abandoned the town, where they had committed numberless outrages, and the people were in great fear of their lives.  The troops were feted and shown every favor possible for two days.  The troops were absent on this expedition over a month, and marched nearly five hundred miles.

            On the twenty-first of August, 1866, a band of about seventy-five Apache Indians made an attack on a haying party within two miles of Fort Selden, killing three men and taking all their animals.  First Lieutenant James J. Billings, Company M, First California Cavalry, was sent in pursuit with six members of his company.  It was thought, at the time Lieutenant Billings was sent out, that it was a small party.  He overtook them in a deep canon, about ten miles from the post, and attacked them as they were ascending the sides of the canon, wounding several.  Finding so large a party, he returned to the post for reinforcements.  In the meantime, Captain R.H. Orton, Company M, who had returned to the post after Lieutenant Billings’ departure, was ordered to take fifteen men and cross to the west bank of the Rio Grande, and intercept them at the San Diego Crossing, a ford twelve miles above, towards with the Indians were moving.  Captain Orton, by hard riding, most of the way at a gallop, over rough mountain trails, arrived at the ford ahead of the Indians, upon which they turned back and crossed the Jornado del Muerto (journey of death) towards the San Andreas Mountains.  Captain Orton then came back to the ferry near the post and, taking their trail, followed them into the mountains, where the trail was lost, owing to the scattering of the band.  While on the trail he came upon the body of a young man whose name was afterwards ascertained to have been W.H. Prescott, and who had been killed by the Indians, which he buried.

            The following are the stations of the different companies, as shown by the monthly returns and muster rolls on the last days of the months:

Company A

Camp Carleton, Cal.

October 31, 1861.

Camp Carleton, Cal.

December 31, 1861.

Camp Carleton, Cal.

February 28, 1862.

Pimos Villages, A.T.

April 30, 1862.

Canada del Oro, A.T.

June 30, 1862.

Tucson, A.T.

July 31, 1862.

Fort Fillmore, N.M.

August 31, 1862

Camp Johnson, N.M.

September 31, 1862

Camp Johnson, N.M.

October 31, 1862.

In the field, N.M.

November 30, 1862.

Las Cruces, N.M.

December 31, 1862.

Rio Francisco, N.M.

January 31, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

February 28, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

March 31, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

April 30, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

May 20, 1863.

Hot Springs, N.M.

June 30, 1863.

Cienega De Los Apaches

July 31, 1863.

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N.M.

August 31, 1863.

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N.M.

September 30, 1863.

Las Cruces, N.M.

October 31, 1863.

Las Cruces, N.M.

November 30, 1863.

San Elizario, Texas

December 31, 1863.

San Elizario, Texas

January 31, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

February 29, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

March 31, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

April 30, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

May 31, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

June 30, 1864.

Las Cruces, N.M.

August 31, 1864.

 

The foregoing table shows the stations of the original company from the time it was stationed at Camp Carleton, near San Bernadino, Cal., until it was mustered out at Las Cruces, N.M., August 31, 1864.  The company being under the command of Captains McCleave and French.

The following table shows the stations of the new company, which was commanded by Captain Ledyard:

Drum Barracks, Cal.

April 30, 1865.

Fort Whipple, A.T.

August 31, 1865.

Fort Whipple, A.T.

October 31, 1865.

Fort Whipple, A.T.

December 31, 1865.

Fort Whipple, A.T.

February 28, 1866.

Company B

En route to Rio Grande, A.T.

June 30, 1862.

Fort Thorn, A.T.

July 31, 1862.

Fort Fillmore, N.M.

August 31, 1862.

En route to Tucson, A.T.

September 30, 1862.

Tucson, A.T.

October 31, 1862.

Tucson, A.T.

November 30, 1862.

-------

December --, ----.

Tucson, A.T.

January 31, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

February 28, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

March 31, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

April 30, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

May 31, 1863.

Fort Stanton, N.M.

June 30, 1863.

Fort Stanton, N.M.

July 31, 1863.

Fort Stanton, N.M.

August 31, 1863.

Fort Union, N.M.

September 30, 1863.

Fort Union, N.M.

October 31, 1863.

Fort Union, N.M.

November 30, 1863.

Fort Union, N.M.

December 31, 1863.

Fort Union, N.M.

January 31, 1864.

Fort Union, N.M.

February 29, 1864.

Fort Wingate, N.M.

March 31, 1864.

Fort Wingate, N.M.

April 30, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

June 30, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

July 31, 1864

Fort Sumner, N.M.

August 31, 1864.

Fort Union

September 30, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

October 31, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

November 30, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

December 31, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

January 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

February 28, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

March 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

April 30, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

May 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

June 30, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

July 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

August 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

September 30, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

October 31, 1865.

Camp near Fort Stanton, N.M.

November 30, 1865.

Camp near Fort Stanton, N.M.

December 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

January 31, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

February 28, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

March 31, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

April 30, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

May 31, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

June 30, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

July 31, 1866.

Company C

En route to Rio Grande, A.T.

June 30, 1862.

Fort Thorn, A.T.

July 31, 1862.

Mouth of Canon de los Caminos, on the Rio Grande, Texas

August 31, 1862.

Camp Johnson, Texas

September 30, 1862.

Fort Craig, N.M.

October 31, 1862.

Fort Craig, N.M.

November 30, 1862.

Fort Craig, N.M.

December 31, 1862.

Rio Francisco, A.T.

January 31, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

February 28, 1863.

Fort West, N.M.

March 31, 1863.

Las Cruces, N.M.

April 30, 1863.

Colton Woods, N.M.

May 31, 1863.

Camp near Franklin, Texas

June 30, 1863.

Camp on the Rio Grande, N.M.

July 31, 1863.

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N.M.

August 31, 1863.

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N.M.

September 30, 1863.

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N.M.

October 31, 1863.

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N.M.

November 30, 1863.

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N.M.

December 31, 1863.

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N.M.

January 31, 1864.

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N.M.

February 29, 1864.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

March 31, 1864.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

April 30, 1864.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

May 31, 1864.

Camp Smith, A.T.

June 30, 1864.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

July 31, 1864.

Las Cruces, N.M.

August 31, 1864.

The original company, Captains Shirland and Nichols, was mustered out of service at Las Cruces, August 31, 1864, and a new company was organized during the months of November and December by First Lieutenant R.H. Orton, of Company F, who was detailed as regimental recruiting officer for that purpose.  Lieutenant Orton commanded the company until Captain Nichols received his commission, and relieved him from the command about March 1, 1865, at San Elizario, Tex.

The new Company C was stationed at the following points:

Franklin, Texas

November 30, 1864.

Franklin, Texas

December 31, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

January 31, 1865.

Franklin, Texas

February 28, 1865.

Franklin, Texas

March 31, 1865.

San Elizario, Texas

April 30, 1865.

San Elizario, Texas

May 31, 1865.

Franklin, Texas

June 30, 1865.

Grazing Camp, near Franklin, Texas

July 31, 1865.

Fort Selden, N.M.

August 31, 1865.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

September 30, 1865.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

October 31, 1865.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

November 30, 1865.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

December 31, 1865.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

February 28, 1866.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

March 31, 1866.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

April 30, 1866.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

May 31, 1866.

Camp at Fort McLean, N.M.

June 30, 1866.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

July 31, 1866.

Camp near Fort Cummings, N.M.

August 31, 1866.

Company D

Canada del Oro, A.T.

June 30, 1862.

En route to Rio Grande

July 31, 1862.

Dinsmore Springs, A.T.

August 31, 1862.

Camp Leonard, near Fort Quitman, Texas

September 30, 1862.

San Elizario, Texas

October 31, 1862.

Ojo del Martin, Texas

November 30, 1862.

Franklin, Texas

December 31, 1862.

Camp near Tula Rosa, N.M.

January 31, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

February 28, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

March 31, 1863.

En route between Forts West and Craig, N.M.

April 30, 1863.

Tula Rosa Valley, N.M.

May 31, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

June 30, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

July 31, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

August 31, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

September 30, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

October 31, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

November 30, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

December 31, 1863.

Fort Craig, N.M.

January 31, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

March 31, 1864.

Navajo Springs, N.M.

April 30, 1864.

Fort Whipple, A.T.

May 31, 1864.

Fort Whipple, A.T.

June 30, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

July 31, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

August 31, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

September 30, 1864.

Company E

Canada del Oro, A.T.

June 30, 1862.

Reventon Station, A.T.

July 31, 1862.

Reventon Station, A.T.

August 31, 1862.

Tucson, A.T.

September 30, 1862.

---------

October --, ----.

Tucson, A.T.

November 30, 1862.

La Mesilla, N.M.

December 31, 1862.

Picacho, A.T.

January 31, 1863.

Tucson, A.T

February 28, 1863.

Gila City, A.T.

March 31, 1863.

Tucson, A.T.

April 30, 1863.

Las Cruces, N.M.

May 31, 1863.

San Pedro Crossing, A.T.

June 30, 1863.

Las Cruces, N.M.

July 31, 1863.

Las Cruces, N.M.

August 31, 1863.

Camp on Rio Miembres, N.M.

September 30, 1863.

Camp on Rio Miembres, N.M.

October 31, 1863.

Camp on Rio Miembres, N.M.

November 30, 1863.

Camp on Rio Miembres, N.M.

December 31, 1863.

Camp on Rio Miembres, N.M.

January 31, 1864.

Franklin, Texas

February 1, 1864

Franklin, Texas

March 1, 1864.

Franklin, Texas

April 1 1864.

Franklin, Texas

May 1, 1864.

Camp at Lemon Ranch, A.T.

June 1 1864.

Camp Smith, A.T.

June 30, 1864.

Camp Riggs, A.T.

July 31, 1864.

Camp near Las Cruces, N.M.

August 31, 1864.

The foregoing table shows the stations of the original Company E, under Captains Mead and Wellman.  The following table shows the stations of the new Company E, under Captain McIlray:

Drum Barracks, Cal.

May 31, 1865.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

June 30, 1865.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

July 31, 1865.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

August 31, 1865

Drum Barracks, Cal.

September 30, 1865.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

October 31, 1865.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

November 30, 1865.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

December 31, 1865.

Company F

Camp Stanford, near Stockton

October 31, 1863.

Camp Union, Sacramento

November 30, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

January 31, 1864.

At sea, en route for Drum Barracks

February 29, 1864.

Camp, near Fort Yuma, Cal.

March 31, 1864.

Camp, at Blue Water Station, en route for Tucson, A.T.

April 30, 1864.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

May 31, 1864.

Camp Miembres, N.M.

June 30, 1864.

Camp, near Las Cruces, N.M.

August 2, 1864.

Cottonwood, eighteen miles below Las Cruces, N.M.

August 23, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

September 10, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

October 3, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

October 31, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

November 30, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

December 31, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

January 31, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

February 28, 1865.

Los Pinos, N.M.

March 31, 1865.

Fort Union, N.M.

April 30, 1865.

Cedar Bluffs, N.M.

May 31, 1865.

Fort Dodge, Kansas

June 30, 1865.

Camp, on the Jornada, Kansas

July 31, 1865.

Camp Nichols, N.M.

August 31, 1865.

Fort Union, N.M.

September 30, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

October 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

November 30, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

December 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

January 31, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

February 28, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

March 31, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

April 30, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

May 31, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

June 30, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

July 31, 1866.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

August 31, 1866.

Los Pinos, N.M.

September 30, 1866.

Company G

This company was mustered into the United States service on the twelfth day of June, 1863, at Camp Stanford, near Stockton, California.

Camp Drum, Cal.

July 31, 1863.

Camp Drum, Cal.

August 31, 1863.

Camp Drum, Cal.

September 30, 1863.

Camp Drum, Cal.

October 31, 1863.

Camp Drum, Cal.

November 30, 1863.

Fort Yuma, Cal., en route to Tucson, A.T.

December 20, 1863.

Tucson, A.T.

January 20, 1864.

Tucson, A.T.

February 29, 1864.

Tucson, A.T.

March 31, 1864.

Camp McCleave, Texas

April 30, 1864.

Camp McCleave, Texas

May 29, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

June 30, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

July 31, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

August 31, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

September 30, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

October 31, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

November 30, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

December 31, 1864.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

January 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

February 28, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

March 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

April 30, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

May 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

June 30, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

July 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

August 31, 1865.

Fort Sumner, N.M.

September 30, 1865.

Camp No. 2, en route from Fort Sumner to Albuquerque, N.M.

October 31, 1865.

Albuquerque, N.M.

November 30, 1865.

Albuquerque, N.M.

December 31, 1865.

Albuquerque, N.M.

January 31, 1866.

Fort Wingate, N.M.

February 28, 1866.

Fort Wingate, N.M.

March 31, 1866.

Fort Wingate, N.M.

April 30, 1866.

Fort Wingate, N.M.

May 31, 1866.

Fort Wingate, N.M.

June 30, 1866.

Fort Wingate, N.M.

July 31, 1866.

Fort Wingate, N.M.

August 31, 1866.

Company H

Camp Union, Cal.

December 31, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

January 31, 1864.

Camp Union, Cal.

February 29, 1864.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

March 31, 1864.

En route for Tucson, A.T.

April 30, 1864.

Tucson, A.T.

May 31, 1864.

En route for Los Pinos, N.M.

June 30, 1864.

San Elizario, Texas

July 31, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

August 31, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

September 30, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

October 31, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

November 30, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

December 31, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

January 31, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

February 28, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

March 31, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

April 30, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

May 31, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

June 30, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

July 31, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

August 31, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

September 30, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

October 31, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

December 2, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

December 31, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

January 31, 1866.

Fort Craig, N.M.

February 28, 1866.

Fort Craig, N.M.

March 31, 1866.

Fort Craig, N.M.

April 30, 1866.

Fort Craig, N.M.

May 31, 1866.

Fort Craig, N.M.

June 30, 1866.

Fort Craig, N.M.

July 31, 1866.

Fort Craig, N.M.

August 31, 1866.

Company I

Benicia Barracks, Cal.

December 31, 1863.

Benicia Barracks, Cal.

January 31, 1864.

Benicia Barracks, Cal.

February 29, 1864.

En route for Tucson, A.T.

April 30, 1864.

El Reventon, A.T.

May 31, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

June 30, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

July 31, 1864.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

August 31, 1864.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

September 30, 1864.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

October 31, 1864.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

November 30, 1864.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

December 31, 1864.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

January 31, 1865.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

February 28, 1865.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

March 31, 1865.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

April 30, 1865.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

May 31, 1865.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

June 30, 1865.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

July 31, 1865.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

August 31, 1865.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

September 30, 1865.

Fort Goodwin, A.T.

October 31, 1865.

Fort McDowell, A.T.

November 30, 1865.

Fort McDowell, A.T.

December 31, 1865.

Fort McDowell, A.T.

January 31, 1866.

Fort McDowell, A.T.

February 28, 1866.

Fort McDowell, A.T.

March 31, 1866.

Fort McDowell, A.T.

April 30, 1866.

Company K

Camp Morris, Cal.

October 31, 1863.

Camp Morris, Cal.

November 30, 1863.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

December 31, 1863.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

January 31, 1864.

En route for Tucson, A.T.

February 29, 1864.

En route for Fort Craig, N.M.

March 31, 1864.

Camp Valverde, Fort Craig, N.M.

April 30, 1864.

Fort Craig, N.M.

June 30, 1864.

Fort Union, N.M.

August 31, 1864.

Cottonwood Springs

October 31, 1864.

Fort Union, N.M.

December 31, 1864.

Fort Union, N.M.

February 28, 1865.

Fort Union, N.M.

April 30, 1865.

Camp, near Fort Larned, Kansas

June 30, 1865.

Camp, at Lower Cimarron Springs

August 31, 1865.

Rock Creek, N.M., en route for Fort Union, N.M.

October 31, 1865.

Camp Lincoln, N.M.

December 31, 1865.

Camp Lincoln, N.M.

February 28, 1866.

Camp Lincoln, N.M.

April 30, 1866.

Fort Union, N.M.

June 30, 1866.

Company L

Camp Union, Cal.

October 1, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

October 31, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

November 30, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

December 31, 1863.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

February 1, 1864.

Drum Barracks, Cal.

March 1, 1864.

Reventon, A.T.

April 30, 1864.

Reventon, A.T.

May 31, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

June 30, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

July 31, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

August 31, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

October 1, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

October 31, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

November 30, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

December 31, 1864.

Tubac, A.T.

January 31, 1865.

Tubac, A.T.

February 28, 1865.

Tubac, A.T.

March 31, 1865.

Tubac, A.T.

April 30, 1865.

Tubac, A.T.

May 31, 1865.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

June 30, 1865.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

July 31, 1865.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

August 31, 1865.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

September 30, 1865.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

October 31, 1865.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

December 1, 1865.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

December 31, 1865.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

January 31, 1866.

Fort McDowell, A.T.

February 28, 1866.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

March 31, 1866.

Fort Bowie, A.T.

April 30, 1866.

Company M

Camp Union, Cal.

July 1, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

August 1, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

September 30, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

October 31, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

November 30, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

December 31, 1863.

Camp Union, Cal.

January 31, 1864.

Pilot Knob, en route from Drum Barracks, Cal., to Tucscon, A.T.

February 29, 1864.

Camp Goodwin, A.T.

March 31, 1864.

Las Cruces, N.M.

April 30, 1864.

Las Cruces, N.M.

May 31, 1864.

Las Cruces, N.M.

June 30, 1864.

Las Cruces, N.M.

July 31, 1864.

Las Cruces, N.M.

September 30, 1864.

Hatch’s Ranch, N.M.

October 31, 1864.

Camp, Blue Water Creek

November 30, 1864.

Camp, “Kiowa and Comanche Expedition,” near Fort Bascom, N.M.

December 31, 1864.

Las Cruces, N.M.

January 31, 1865.

Las Cruces, N.M.

April 30, 1865.

Fort Selden, N.M.

May 31, 1865.

Fort Craig, N.M.

June 30, 1865.

Fort Selden, N.M.

July 31, 1865.

Fort Selden, N.M.

August 31, 1865.

Fort Selden, N.M.

September 30, 1865.

Fort Selden, N.M.

October 31, 1865.

Fort Selden, N.M.

November 30, 1865.

Fort Selden, N.M.

December 31, 1865.

Fort Selden, N.M.

January 31, 1866.

Fort Selden, N.M.

February 28, 1866.

Fort Selden, N.M.

March 31, 1866.

Fort Selden, N.M.

April 30, 1866.

Fort Selden, N.M.

May 31, 1866.

Fort Selden, N.M.

June 30, 1866.

Fort Selden, N.M.

July 31, 1866.

Fort Selden, N.M.

August 31, 1866.

Baird’s Ranch, N.M.

September 30, 1866.

            All of the companies of the First Cavalry – Companies B, C, F, G, H, K, and M – stationed in New Mexico and Texas, were ordered to assemble at Baird’s Ranch, near Albuquerque, for the purpose of being mustered out of the United States service, during the month of September, 1866.  Company M was mustered out on the thirtieth, the last company organization of California Volunteers in the service, though not the last of the California Volunteers, for those wishing to be returned to California were consolidated into two companies, one of cavalry and one of infantry, constituting the return Column, the whole under command of Captain W.F. French, of the First Veteran Infantry, with Lieutenant R.E. Comins, of Company F, as Adjutant, and Captain R.H. Orton, of Company M, as Quartermaster and Commissary.  Captain Thomas A. Stombs, of Company F, commanded the cavalry portion of the Column.

            The following officers of the First Cavalry returned with this Column:  Captains Thomas A. Stombs of Company F, and R.H. Orton of Company M; First Lieutenants E.C. Baldwin of Company B, James Loughead of Company C, and James J. Billings of Company M; Second Lieutenants James W. Chambers of Company H, and R.E. Comins of Company F.

            The Column left the Rio Grande, near Los Lunas, October 15, 1866, and arrived at Drum Barracks, California, December twenty-fourth; was embarked on the steamer Orizaba, and arrived in San Francisco December twenty-eighth.  All but Captain R.H. Orton were mustered out at the Presidio December 31, 1866, the latter being mustered out January 4, 1867 – the last of the California Volunteers.

Rosters

Officers

Companies

A B C D E F G H I K L M


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