Militia and National Guard Unit Histories
The National Guard of California
By Brigadier-General C. C. Allen,
Editorial Comments by
Colonel Norman S. Marshall and Chief Warrant Officer 4 Mark J.
California Center for Military History
This article, which makes up the body
of the text herein, was originally written by then Brigadier-General
C. C. Allen, Adjutant-General of the State of California [1890-1894],
and was published in The Californian, 1891-1892, Vol. I, pp.
541-563, and provides us with an interesting insight into the
workings of the National Guard of California and the then newly
formed Naval Battalion of the National Guard.
"An efficient military organization
is a necessity. It is a part of the government; first, as a protection
from external aggression, and secondly, to insure domestic tranquility
in the full and complete protection of persons and property at
The exercise of the military power which imparts to the whole
fabric of government its cohesion and strength is exerted in
emergencies and in times of peace relapses into preparatory and
ceremonial phases which by their apparent inutility often deceive
the popular mind into depreciation of their value. Those who
are responsible for the administration of military affairs and
the preservation of good order in times of public danger are
compelled to appeal to popular judgment to demonstrate the necessity
for an efficient military organization and its retention and
Some very crude ideas prevail that the military organization
of the State is superfluous, that there is no necessity for it,
and that its abolishment would be advisable. The man at the plow
sees no necessity for an armed police, but the inhabitants of
a great city know very well that protection to life and property
depends upon the efficiency of the local police. One man with
a revolver can drive a dozen farmers from their homes. The dangerous
elements that congregate in our large cities are only restrained
from pillage and rapine by the fear of the armed police which,
in extreme cases, is supported by the military forces of the
State. That the militia has been necessary to the peace of the
commonwealth, the following incidents will prove.
In 1871, one company of each of the National Guard and the Sumner
Light Guard were ordered to Amador County to quell a riot growing
out of a collision between the miner's league and the mill owners.
Again, in 1877, the companies were called out to guard the armories,
and prevent destruction of valuable property during three days'
riots in San Francisco when the mob fired lumber yards and threatened
the destruction of the city. The service rendered on this occasion
amply illustrated the benefit to society of these organizations.
In December, 1872, Indian depredations of a serious nature occurred
in Siskiyou County, where many lives were lost and much valuable
property destroyed. Fifty rifles with necessary ammunition were
sent to arm the citizens of that county. January 10th, 1873,
sixty rifles with ammunition were forwarded to Dorris Bridge,
and May 1st, a company was organized at Crescent City, Del Norte
County, and armed with fifty rifles. May 15th, eighty sabers
and eighty Colt's revolvers were sent to a company formed at
Scott River, Siskiyou County, and on May 20th, a company of scouts
was organized there for active service.
On February 28th, 1876, the troops of the Second Brigade were
ordered to San Quentin, by request of the civil authorities,
on account of a fire at the prison, to prevent escape of the
convicts, and protect the property of the State. The conduct
of the troops was satisfactory in the extreme. July 22d, the
Stockton Guard, Captain Lehe, was ordered out to protect prisoners
from mob violence. In 1877, the Chico Guard was called upon to
assist the authorities in protecting and guarding prisoners taken
from Chico to Oroville. Owing to the excitement produced by the
riotous proceedings in the East, serious apprehensions were felt
that evil disposed persons in San Francisco and Oakland who had
made violent threats would resort to violence. General McComb,
in command of the Second Brigade, made requisition for ten thousand
rounds of ammunition; Captain Hanlett, of the Oakland Guard,
for two thousand rounds; Captain Lehe, of Stockton, for thousand
rounds, all of which were furnished. Six hundred rifles were
sent to General McComb to arm recruits in his Brigade. The police
force of the city at this time numbered 150, and the militia,
1,200, and were regarded as inadequate for the work at hand.
So serious was the danger that in forty-eight hours there were
mustered into service five thousand men in companies of 100.
After three days of intense excitement and after much property
had been destroyed by the rioters, order was restored and the
troops returned to their civil affairs. Again in July of the
same year several companies of this brigade were ordered to duty
by request of the civil authorities, which prompt action served
to quell the riotous populace. Five thousand dollars was appropriated
by the Legislature to pay for services of the militia in San
In April, 1882, four companies of the First Artillery, Sacramento,
were ordered out to quell a riot occasioned by the murder of
a prominent citizen of Sacramento. The prison was surrounded
by an angry mob which threatened to take the prisoner by force
and visit upon him penalty of death. Through the efforts of the
officers of this command and the excellent discipline of the
soldiers these designs were prevented. The Governor specially
complimented the men upon the admirable manner in which they
had performed their duties.
In July, 1884, upon the demand of the Sheriff of San Joaquin
County, the Stockton Guard and the Emmet Guard of Stockton were
ordered out to assist the civil officers in enforcing the law
of that county. This is known as the "Moquelumne Grant War."
Many men with their families had settled on lands that the courts
had decided belonged to the railroad company, had put in crops
and were resisting the officers in attempting their removal.
They were well armed and expressed their determination to resist
the execution of the law to the last extent. After several days
of camp life the settlers surrendered, the writs were served
and the troops returned to their homes. Their prompt response
to the call of the Governor, and their cool and soldierly bearing
while in camp evoked the commendation of the executive. The appropriation
of $4,142 in payment of their services was made by the Legislature
at the following session.
As to the riots of 1877, in San Francisco, when the "Safety
Committee" was organized and the protection of the city
was given into the hands of a self-appointed committee of citizens,
the National Guard was never satisfied with the authorities on
that occasion and believed that this committee was inimical to
peace. The parading of the police, appointed by this committee,
through the city, armed with picks handles as emblems of authority,
tended to excite ridicule in the ranks of the rioters as well
as among the citizens. With so efficient organization of the
National Guard as we now have in that city such a condition of
affairs will hardly again arise. It is admitted now that the
knowledge of the fact that we have an armed and discipline force
has tended to preserve peace through the troublesome riotous
agitations of the past few years.
In 1886, occurred in San Francisco what is known as the "car
strike." The difficulty arose on behalf of the gripmen and
conductors on the Sutter Street road, regarding wages; a strike
was inaugurated and efforts were made to prevent the operation
of the road. A large class of the people sympathized with them.
The armories of the National Guard were threatened, and fears
were entertained that the arms would be seized and placed in
the hands of the rioters. In consequence, guards were placed
in the several armories and were maintained there for a period
of forty-three days, at an expense to the State of $3,877, which
was paid by an act of the Legislature the following winter.
These are but a few instances showing the uses to which the National
Guard is put and its desirability as a standing organization.
Every able bodied male inhabitant of the State of California,
Mongolians and Indians excepted, between the ages of eighteen
and forty-five years, excepting ministers of religion, civil
and military officers of the United States, officers of foreign
governments, civil officers of this State, and all persons exempt
from military duty by the laws of the United States, is subject
to military duty. There are in this State 153,389 such persons
liable to be called upon for this duty. The law provides that
the organized uniformed militia shall be known as "The National
Guard of California," and shall not exceed sixty companies.
As organized it is as follows: The Governor, Commander-in-Chief;
the Adjutant-General, with rank of Brigadier-General, who is
ex-officio Quartermaster-General, Commissary-General, Chief of
Ordnance and Chief of Staff; one Assistant Adjutant-General;
one Surgeon-General; one Judge-Advocate-General; one Chief Engineer;
one Paymaster-General; and one Inspector-General of Rifle Practice,
each with the rank of Colonel, and fourteen aids-de-camp with
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. The Division, Brigade and Regimental
Commanders have each a corresponding staff except as to number
of aids and relative rank.
The State troops are divided into six Brigades, and the organized
force in each is as follows: First Brigade, 769; Second, 2018;
Third, 414; Fourth, 423; Fifth, 400; Sixth, 150; in the Naval
Battalion, 380; making a total of 4554 officers and men. Maj.
Gen W. H. Dimond commands the division comprising the whole.
Brig. Gen. E. P. Johnson, Los Angeles, is in command of the First
Brigade, with two regiments, the Seventh, Lt. Col. Howland, six
companies; the Ninth, Col. E. B. Spileman, six companies.
The Second is commanded by Brig. Gen. John H. Dickinson, San
Francisco, with the First Infantry, Col. W. P. Sullivan, Jr.,
seven companies; the Second Artillery, Col. Wm. Macdonald, seven
companies, including one light battery; the Third Infantry, Col.
Thos. F. Barry, seven companies; the Fifth Infantry, Col. D.
B. Fairbanks, with six companies, the First Troop Cavalry, Capt.
S. P. Blumenberg, unattached.
Brig. Gen. M. W. Muller is in command of the Third Brigade, headquarter
at Fresno, with one regiment, the Sixth Infantry, Col. Eugene
Lehe, six companies.
The Fourth is in command of Brig. Gen. T. W. Sheehan, Sacramento,
with First Artillery, one company of which is armed and drilled
as a light battery, commanded by Col. J. W. Guthrie.
Brig. Gen. J. W. B. Montgomery, Chico, is in command of the Fifth
Brigade, with one regiment, the Eighth Infantry, Col. Park Henshaw,
The Sixth Brigade is in command of Brig. Gen. J. W. Freese, Eureka,
with one battalion and two companies, the Tenth, under Maj. J.
D. H. Chamberlin.
The First Infantry, Second Artillery and Third Infantry are located
in San Francisco, also the First Troop Cavalry. The companies
of the Fifth Infantry are located in San Jose, Oakland, San Rafael,
Petaluma and Santa Rosa. The companies of the Sixth in Stockton,
Modesto, Fresno and Visalia; the Seventh Infantry in Los Angeles,
Ventura, Pasadena (the Markham Guards) and Anaheim; the Eighth
in Chico, Colusa, Marysville, Red Bluff, Redding and Oroville;
the Ninth in San Diego, Santa Ana, Riverside, San Bernardino
and Pomona; the Tenth Battalion in Eureka and Arcata.
The office of Inspector-General of Rifle Practice was created
in 1878, and the duty imposed upon him was to prescribe rules
and regulations for rifle practice. He had authority to examine
officers as to their proficiency in target practice, and had
general supervision of all matters pertaining to this important
part of a soldier's duty. It is to be regretted that these duties
have been permitted to lapse into "desuetude," and
that there is not that attention paid to details of target practice
that the good of the service demands.
Target practice is obligatory upon every member of the National
Guard. In June and September, each officer and man is required
to fire ten shots, and those making a score of sixty out of a
possible one hundred at these shoots are awarded a silver medal
and bronze marksman bar; those making eighty per cent, a silver
medal and a silver rifleman bar, and to those making ninety per
cent, a silver medal and a gold sharpshooter bar. Enlisted men
must have attended sixty per cent of company drills for the past
year. Those making a score of ninety per cent may compete for
the gold medal, which is the highest prize for marksmanship.
This year the contest lies between Colonel Kellogg (retired)
and Captain Adolph Huber of the Second Artillery. Interest in
target practice increases every year, and the appropriation for
that purpose does not cover the amount expended by the several
commands by more than fifty per cent. Under the orders of 1890,
when percentages were five per cent lower than in 1891, one thousand
and twenty-five medals were issued, notwithstanding the increase
of percentage, the number reached nine hundred and eighty, which
shows a marked improvement in shooting.
Under the regulations governing the National
Guard, no man is furnished blank cartridges which "business"
is required. Should the force be ordered out to quell a riot,
and the necessity for firing arise, no man is permitted to fire
blank cartridges or to fire in the air. It is well that this
fact be known, as the impression prevails in some quarters that
a few rounds would be fired to scare the mob before actual business
The companies are required to drill at least three times each
month, excepting in the month of December, but usually four drills
are held. Armory rents and incidental expenses are paid out of
the appropriation for this purpose. The allowance to each infantry
and artillery company drilling as infantry is $100 per month;
to the cavalry company, $150, and to each light battery, of which
there are two, $200 per month; to each Regimental Headquarters,
$5 per month per company in the brigade for expenses. The Major-General
receives for incidental expenses $600 per annum. The allowance
to the Signal Corps is $2.50 per man per month.
Annual encampments are provided for. The State pays transportation
of men and horses, tents and baggage, and subsistence not to
exceed $400 to each company. The attendance last summer averaged
seventy-five per cent of the entire force, and was satisfactory
in results. The exercises consist in drills, guard duties and
other exercises incident to service in the field; the soldier
is taught obedience to orders, to rely upon himself and to acquire
that steadiness of purpose so necessary to military discipline.
The health in all the camps was good, food abundant and well
prepared, and the surgeons' reports were generally satisfactory.
The discipline is better year by year, and though the frequent
changes by reason of removals and expiration of service tend
to demoralize the commands, there are several thousand men scattered
throughout the State, who have had more or less experience in
the line, and could be relied upon to fill the ranks of a very
efficient armed force.
From the report of the Brigade Surgeon of one of the camps in
an Eastern State, it appears that the men were seriously affected
by poison ivy, mosquitoes, chiggers and fleas, and so serious
were some of the attacks, that the patients were disabled from
the performance of duty. The surgeon finds it necessary to prescribe
a remedy for each of the above-named "enemies of good order"
for future encampments, which is printed in the report of the
Adjutant-General. The report proceeds: "The cyclone of Friday
night, August 15th, proved very disastrous; * * * about one-third
of the tents were submerged, and the calamity of longer remaining
in camp could be foreseen; * * * it was the unanimous opinion
of the regimental surgeons to break camp at once, and camp was
abandoned at noon."
This sounds peculiar to the California guardsmen, as nothing
like any of these "calamities" has ever been experienced
in any camp in this State. Clear skies, pure air and perfect
freedom from poison ivy, mosquitoes, chiggers, fleas and cyclones
are among the experiences of our soldiers.
Last winter the Legislature authorized the formation of an additional
force to be attached to the National Guard, to be known as the
Naval Battalion. It is composed of four companies, or, more properly,
divisions, of eighty men each-one in San Diego, Lieutenant T.
A. Nerney, and Divisions B, C and D, commanded by Lieutenants
J. J. Fitzgerald, C. A. Douglas and L. H. Turner. Lieutenant-Commander
Fred B. Chandler commands the battalion. This organization is
designed to fit men for the Navy, the new armed vessels requiring
an entirely different class of men from the old sailing ships.
Already there is a demand for new seamen such as will be educated
in this battalion to man the new sea-coast defense vessels being
constructed in San Francisco. The general Government arms the
battalion, but the men are required to furnish their own uniforms.
Following the old policy of doing things only by halves, as in
case of the National Guard, the Government simply supplies the
arms and says, "now go and fit yourselves for seamen; we
will want you one of these days." Thanks to the liberality
of the citizens of San Diego and San Francisco, the entire force
is now well equipped. The Secretary of the Navy has notified
the Adjutant-General's office that the allotment of arms has
been made to this State, (which is in excess of that of any other,
we having already mustered more men than either New York or Massachusetts)
and that a vessel will soon be placed in the harbor of San Francisco,
to be used by the battalion for purposes of drill. It will have
boats and heavy guns, and a naval officer will be detailed to
instruct the men in practical seamanship, gunnery, etc. A majority
of the officers have had sea service in the Navy and marine,
and are discharging their duties in a satisfactory manner. No
provision has been made by the State for payment of armory rents
and other expenses, but the officers have given liberally of
their private means for this purpose. The organization should
have aid from the State, and should receive the cordial support
of the people of the cities in which it is located.
The command is under orders of the Commander-in-Chief, and is
governed so far as practicable, by the rules and regulations
of the National Guard.
By an Act of Congress, in 1882, the Secretary of War is authorized,
whenever the Governor of any State bordering on the sea or gulf
coast, and having a permanent camp ground for the encampment
of the militia not less than six days annually, shall make requisition
for the same, to furnish two heavy guns and four mortars with
carriages and platforms for the proper instruction and practice
of the militia in heavy artillery drill. Brigadier-General Dickinson
is giving his attention to this matter and we have hopes that
some suitable camp ground may be secured soon, when the requisition
will be forwarded and the guns will be place in some suitable
position on the coast.
General Cutting has introduced a bill in Congress repealing the
century old militia law and providing for a reorganization of
the National Guard of the country in harmony with modern ideas.
It is still the law that militia officers shall be armed with
a "spontoon," whatever that may be, and that the men
be provided with equipments unknown to this generation. It also
increases the appropriation for the militia of the United States
from $400,000 to $1,000,000. Should this become a law we may
hope to have one of the most efficient military organizations
in the country.
During the late discussions in the public press of the question
of war with Chili, the attention of the country was called to
the standing and efficiency of the National Guard of the several
States, and it was alleged that the Adjutant-General of the Army
laid before the President statistics showing the strength and
efficiency of this force and the condition of the militia in
case demand should be made for volunteers. The National Guard
of the country amounts in round numbers to one hundred thousand,
and it is safe to assume that one hundred thousand more have
had more or less experience in drills and in camp life. The old
heroes of the late war although willing to again enter the service
of the country, should their services be required, are now too
far along in years to take up arms in a contest abroad. To this
generation belongs the duty of defending the honor of the country,
and the question of the efficiency of the National Guard of California,
should we be called upon to defend our own cities, was one that
was discussed among business men with much interest. I am glad
to say that from the tone of the correspondence to the General
Headquarters of Guard, the greatest enthusiasm was manifested
by the rank and file, and they showed a willingness to take any
part that would be assigned them, should war be declared. These
men are patriotic, they love our institutions and are willing
to risk their lives in the defense of the country. It is not
boasting to say that we are a great nation, and the intelligence
of our soldiery has no equal anywhere, and it is not confined
to any locality. Should the nation be engaged in war, the young
men of the South and the East would vie with the North and the
West in deeds of heroism and self-sacrifice. Whatever small politicians
may say, we are one people, one in patriotism, one in devotion
to the honor of the flag.
Another feature of the National Guard of California is the fact
that politics is not permitted to enter the organization and
political discussions are discountenanced. Some of the prominent
officers served in the Confederate army, while their regimental
associates fought against them in the late war. In the selection
of general officers, the Commander-in-Chief has shown that the
question to be considered was as to their qualifications, and
his appointments have met the approval of the friends of the
organization. His earnest interest in the Guard has been shown
on all occasions, particularly during the session of the Legislature
when, had he not personally appealed to leading members of that
body, the appropriation would have been reduced to such an extent
that the organization could not have been maintained. Economy
is demanded in the expenditures and strict accounting of moneys
expended as required. The taxpayer will willingly vote the necessary
appropriations if he is convinced that the results contemplated
in legislation will be secured.
Prior to April 1st, 1889, the Signal Corps,
composed at first of details from various companies, and later
organized under a law passed by the Legislature in 1887. These
Corps were under the command of Regimental Signal Officers, and
consisted of from ten to fourteen men each.
But Major E. A. Denicke, Signal Officer of the Second Brigade
(now Lieutenant-Colonel and Division Signal Officer), who had
served in the U.S. Signal Corps during the Civil War, soon perceived
that detachments of so few men could not perform practical work
to much advantage, and obtained the introduction into the State
Legislature of a bill authorizing Brigade Signal Corps. This
bill became a law early in 1889, and in April of that year the
Signal Corps of the Second Brigade was organized. Its charter
members were members of the Regimental Corps of the First and
Fifth Infantry regiments. It soon completed its limit of membership-forty.
The Corps was under the command of the Brigade Signal Officer,
but was without company officers. This deficiency was remedied
in part by the appointment of First Sergeant W. E. Brown to the
office of First Lieutenant and Signal Officer of the First Regiment,
and detailing him to the command of the Corps in November, 1889.
In June, 1890, Sergt. C. J. Evans of the Corps was appointed
Signal Officer of the Second Regiment, and detailed for duty
with the Corps. This arrangement continued until 1891, when the
law was amended to provide for company officers of each Brigade
Signal Corps, so that at present the Corps consists of forty
men, and has officers a Captain and a First Lieutenant.
The Corps went into camp with the Second Regiment, at Monterey,
in 1889, again with the Second Brigade, at Santa Cruz, in 1890,
and also in 1891.
Although its duties call for mounted service, it has not, until
lately, been provided with the necessary equipments. A few horses,
however, were taken into camp in 1891, and the experiment proved
so successful that it is expected that the entire Corps will
be provided with mounts at the next camp, as forty saddles and
bridles have just been re-issued for its use.
The drill of the Corps has been extended to such infantry movements
as are necessary, signaling with wands, flags, torches and heliographs,
the use of telescopes and the establishing and changing of stations.
The longest ranges of flag signaling have been twelve miles and
of heliographs eighteen miles. But it is hoped that, as it has
now equipments for mounts, it will demonstrate its usefulness
at greater ranges.
The members make frequent short trips to points around the bay
for the purpose of signaling, and the Corps has had several bivouacs
and minor camps, at which much experience was gained.
Lately, several lines for the transmission of messages have been
established in San Francisco for use in case of riot, etc., and
it is purposed gradually to extend these lines into the country
surrounding the bay.
The present officers connected with the Corps are Major D. E.
Miles, Brigade Signal Officer, and Captain Charles J. Evans and
First Lieutenant Abbot A. Hanks, company officers. Although scarcely
three years old, the Corps has provided itself with a supply
of tents, cooking utensils and other camp equipments.
There is also one company of Cadets in San Francisco, composed
of students attending the Boys' High School, which is attached
to the First Infantry. The officers receive warrants and hold
their positions during good behavior or until the leave the school.
This is the only Cadet Company in the State and no more will
be authorized as the appropriation for arms and equipments is
not sufficient to meet the increased demand.
Under the law the students of the University are organized into
a body known as the "University Cadets." The officers,
between and including the ranks of Second Lieutenant and Colonel,
are selected by the Chief Military Instructor, with the assent
of the President of the University, and receive their commissions
from the Governor. The arms and equipments are received from
the General Government, and the military instructor is detailed
by the Secretary of War. Upon graduating or retiring from the
University, such officers may resign their commissions or hold
the same as retired officers of the University Cadets, liable
to be called into service by the Governor in case of war, invasion,
insurrection or rebellion.
There are four Signal Corps, in the National Guard attached to
the First, Second, Third and Fourth Brigades, respectively, all
doing excellent work. They are equipped with heliographs, flags
and other necessary properties. The Corps of the First Brigade
has a membership of twenty men commanded by Maj. M. T. Owens,
Signal Officer of the First Brigade, and one First Lieutenant;
the Brigade Corps commanded by Maj. D. E. Miles, has a Captain,
a First Lieutenant and forty men; the Third has ten men commanded
by Maj. M. DeVries, and one First Lieutenant, and the Fourth
has ten men under Maj. W. H. Sherburn, and one First Lieutenant.
The service performed by these commands while in camp was excellent
and successful signaling was done to a distance of several miles.
Some work by Corporal Wm. A. Burr, First Brigade, was worthy
of special mention. He has made a map of the coast heliograph
system,* herewith shown, extending in Southern California more
than one hundred miles in direct lines, with bases at Pt. La
Jolla Soledad, near San Diego, San Clemente Island in the Santa
Barbara Channel and San Pedro Hill, near San Padro. He has also
plotted a system of coast stations from these points to Sonoma
Mountain, Mt. Diablo, Mt. Hamilton and points near San Francisco.
More than twenty-five stations are designated on this map north
of the Tehachepi which could be utilized should the necessity
arise for communicating by signals. It is questionable, however,
if more than two signal corps should be maintained. In case of
demand for this kind of service a detail of practical signal
men could be readily brought from either Los Angeles or San Francisco.
The first military company formed in this State was July, 1849,
under Sherman was appointed Major-General of the State forces,
but owing to disagreements with the Governor, resigned in 1856.
The organization of the militia was by Act of the Legislature
in 1861. It provided that the persons liable to military duty
should be divided into two classes; all whose names appeared
on the muster rolls of a military company were designated as
the "organized militia," and all others as the "enrolled
militia," and made some slight provision for arming, clothing
and disciplining the organized force. The Act of 1862 provided
for the calling out of the entire body of the militia, if necessary,
to preserve the peace.
In 1864, a State military fund was created by the levy of two
dollars upon each male inhabitant of the State, twenty-one years
of age and over, California Indians alone exempted. John Chinaman
had not been considered up to that time, but he is not forgotten
since, and is not excepted in the matter of taxation for all
The Statute of 1866 authorized the formation of sixty companies
to `be known as "The National Guard of California,"
but only forty companies were mustered. All companies were required
to meet for drill at least once in each month, but in San Francisco
and Sacramento they were required to drill once a week. It provided
for three parades each year, the fourth of July, the ninth of
September (Admission Day) and for target practice. The law provided
further that all persons in the military service should be exempt
from the performance of jury duty, payment of road tax and head
tax of every description, and from service on posse comitatus.
Horses, arms, and equipments were exempt from execution, and
after seven years' service, a man could demand and receive a
certificate of exemption from the above-named duties, except
in time of war. This is still the law. The appropriation was
fifty dollars per month to each infantry and cavalry company,
and to each light battery twenty-five dollars per month for each
gun, for armory rents; to the commanding officer of each regiment
fifteen dollars per month, and to each Brigadier-General one
dollar per month for each company in his command. One and one-fourth
cents on each one hundred dollars was levied on all property
for military purposes.
The new Drill Regulations of the U. S. Army, adopted by this
State, make many changes in the organization necessary. They
provide for two or more battalions to each regiment with a Major
in command of each. It is charged with some truth, that our system
is already "top-heavy" with officers, and that the
additional officers increase its heaviness. But our present organization
is in accordance with that adopted by the Government and to conform
to the new order of things, it will be necessary to recruit the
companies to seventy-four men each. One difficulty arises in
the fact that the appropriation for clothing is nearly exhausted,
and no provision is made for uniforming any more men than we
now have on the rolls. There are now sixty companies with three
thousand seven hundred and ninety-three enlisted men, being an
average of sixty-three men to a company, so that when the authority
to clothe the additional number necessary, to conform to the
new Regulations is conferred by the Legislature, we will have
the new battalion formations. All officers are required to furnish
their own uniforms and equipments, and their duties are performed
without cost to the State, except where traveling under orders
when actual expenses are allowed.
One of the most discouraging hindrances to the success of the
National Guard is the seeming indifference of many business men
to its welfare. They have large manufacturing and mercantile
houses in which thousands of dollars are invested and more than
any one class are dependent for success upon an orderly community.
In times of violence they are the first to cry out and are the
most anxious for the enforcement of the law. They have in their
employ a great many young men connected with the military. Are
the latter to bear the burdens of the soldiers, stand as sentries
at the doors of employers, take the risks of attacks by riotous
mobs and give their best days in preparing to satisfactorily
perform the duties of armed defenders of the laws, and as now
be met with threats of discharge by employers, in case they are
ordered to camp or to parade? Which class has the greater interest
in good order?
The guard of this State is not a regular force; it does not serve
for pay; it gives its time and brains and honest efforts to the
work in hand, practically free of cost to the State. At the very
least no member of the guard ever receives an adequate return
for the time, money and labor he puts into the work, unless it
be form the consciousness that he has in some small measure performed
his duty to the State, and it is but proper that there should
be recognition, not to any particular locality or individuals,
or class of individuals, but that all the various districts that
contribute to the maintenance of the guard should, in some substantial
manner, receive acknowledgment for the services rendered.
The National Guard of California is an educational organization.
It teaches and enforces discipline, it develops self-reliance
and soldierly bearing, it instills in the minds of the young
men that love of order and protection to life and property upon
which alone the peace of the country is assured. The soldier
feels that he is a part of the government and has within him
a feeling of pride of citizenship that adds to the glory of being
one of the great whole.