California State Military Department
The California State Military Museum
A United States Army Museum Activity
Preserving California's Military Heritage
California Militia and National Guard Unit Histories
The Eureka Guard Company:
Company A, 10th Infantry Battalion, National Guard of California
(Including the Arcata Guard Company, Company B, 10th Infantry Battalion)
By Captain George J. Albert, Field Historian, California Center for Military History

Organized: March 15, 1879*

Reconstituted: May 13, 1890**

Reconstituted: July 23, 1895***

Reconstituted: December 7, 1895****

*Eureka Guard Company (unattached) organized March 15, 1879 in Eureka, Humboldt County, California.

**The Eureka Guard Company (unattached) reconstituted May 13, 1890 as Company A, Tenth Infantry Battalion, Sixth Brigade. Adjutant General's Report, 1890, page 59.

***Company A, Tenth Infantry Battalion, Sixth Brigade, reconstituted July 23, 1895 as Company A, First Infantry Regiment, Second Brigade, Adjutant Generals Report, 1895-96, General Order No. 11, page 76.

****Company A, First Infantry Regiment, Second Brigade was discontinued as an Infantry Company and enrolled as the Fifth Division in the California Naval Militia Battalion on December 7, 1895. Adjutant Generals Report 1895-96, General Order No. 17, page 87. Lieutenant Commander Daniel J. Foley, Lieutenant Jr. Grade Charles V. Otto, and Ensign Edward H. McLaughlin, retained their former rank as of May 17, 1893 and July 22, 1895, when they were Captain, First Lieutenant, and Second Lieutenant of Company A, Tenth Infantry Battalion. Adjutant Generals Report, 1895-96, General Order No. 3, page 115.

History and Activities

Many leading citizens of Eureka were members of the various National Guard and Militia  Units at various times in the past. It was an honor and social privilege to be associated with these units.  They elected their own officers and wrote their own Charters.

On Saturday, 21 December 1878, The Weekly Humboldt Times published the following article:

            “From the Seat of War.--- Several attempts have been made in this city to organize a military company, but each has proven a failure for the reason that the proper arms and accoutrements could not be obtained from the Government. Some months ago a petition was circulated asking the organization of a company, and received about sixty signatures. Nothing had been heard of the paper since it left Eureka, until yesterday, when (the) Hon. Jas. E. Murphy, of Del Norte, stated that the request had been granted, and that the arms and accoutrements would be sent as soon as the proper bonds were filed…..all the signers to the original paper are requested to meet at Centennial Hall, Monday evening, Dec. 31st, at seven o’clock.”

The Daily Humboldt Times announced on Saturday,  December 28, 1878, and Sunday  December 29, 1878, that the meeting would be at City Hall on December 30th 1878.

At the appointed time and place, the meeting was called to order by Alexander Campbell, and the new company was duly named the Eureka Guards. The following persons signed the roll: J. A. Watson, George Dean, J. L. Crichton, L. Persons, E. Ruscoe, C. E. Long, F. H. Wunderlich, J. E. Mathews, A. P. Flaglor, T. R. Graham, William P. Hanna, J. Hetherington Jr., S. W. Freese, C. G. Taylor, A. J. Wiley, John Miller, C. E. LaGrange, W. C. Stewart, R. Sweasey, Alexander Campbell, W. Sweasey, J. Simpson, A. M. Delamore, Warran Jones. The Chairman then appointed a committee on by-laws.

A second meeting was held in the City Hall on January 9, 1879, when the Guards appointed a committee on organization and were assured that their by-laws would be ready in time for the organizational meeting.

The third meeting was held at the City Hall on March 15, 1879 to officially bring the Company into State Service. The Eureka Guard Company was established under the direction of John A. Watson, and Major Pierce H. Ryan from the Adjutant’s Office. The following members were present: John A. Watson, George Dean, John L. Crichton, F. H. Wunderlich Jr., A. P. Flaglor, William P. Hanna, S. W. Freese, A. J. Wiley, C. E. LaGrange, Richard Sweasey, A. M. Delamore, Louis Pearsons, Ed Ruscoe, Charles E. Long, John Hetherington, C. G. Taylor, W. E. Stewart, Alexander Campbell, J. Simpson, James T. Kelecher, H. H. Buhn Jr., James G. D. Crichton, Charles E. Hasty, Peter Belcher, Thomas H. Chope, James E. Mathews, A. Winzler, M. Barman, C. G. Lundblade, John A. Livingston, Edward Everding, W. K. Strong, F. A. Lewitt, J. H. G. Weaver, J. P. Monroe, J. S. Gibson, J. P. Hopkins, J. B. Cutler, J. H. G. Hansell, A. W. Anderson, Norman Howard, Thomas Chope Jr., Edward Grant, C. Rose, C. Frank Gardner, A. D. MacDonald, T. D. Rees, R. W. Rideout, Alex Connick, J. W. Freese, C. E. Wunderlich, R. B. Dickson, J. W. Appleby, Cornelius McElvoy, W. H. Bull, W. F. Brown, S. H. Butterfield, J. Bullard, W. F. Walker, W. W. Turner, all of whom were duly sworn in as members of the Eureka Guard, thus forming a Company of the National Guard of California. This unit elected Alexander Campbell Captain; James B. Brown 1st Lieutenant; and William P. Hanna as 2nd lieutenant. Although there is no record of the event, the by-laws were probably accepted at this meeting, since the Eureka Guard Company was declared organized, as required by law.

Prior to the establishment of this company, the Sixth Brigade had no organizations save the staff, which rendered service in collecting and returning arms of some of the disbanded independent companies scattered throughout the northern counties. When the Eureka Guard was organized in 1879, they had for eleven years the unique position of being the only company in the Sixth Brigade of the California National Guard.

The Company starting meeting in Centennial Hall on March 21, 1879, and accepted the offer of the Centennial Hall Association to rent the building for thirty dollars per month.

The Company applied for the poll tax exemption permitted them by law in March, and voted a resolution of thanks to J. E. Murphy for his part in bringing the Company into being. They received their arms and equipment in June 1879.

The members of the newly organized Eureka Guard drilled five nights a week, and in a short period of time, they were able to go through their manual of arms with a snap and precision that would have done credit to a much older company.

The Eureka Guards participated in the Fourth of July Parade and gave the first Military Ball in the history of Eureka that evening. About the same time, they set up a 600 yard rifle range for target practice to the south of the race track at South Park. Fourteen members were recommended for dishonorable discharges for failure to attend meetings, and at the following meeting Captain Campbell resigned, with First Lieutenant J. B. Brown taking over temporary command.

For their civil officers, the company had elected T. B. Cutler, recording Secretary; R. B. Elickson, Financial Secretary; and C. G. Taylor, Treasurer. R. W. Rideout, W. P. Pratt, and J. E. Mathews were elected as the Financial Committee. During the year 1879, the Guards had elected seven new members, had three members resign, and elected three honorary members. The new members were: John Armstrong, Fred Bernard, Caleb Vane, J. Murphy, Dr. Clarke, W. H. Triggs, and W. McCann. The members who resigned were: Jim Crichton, William P. Hanna, and J. H. G. Hansall. The Honorary members were: John A. Watson, J. W. Freese, and Dr. Clarke (who had severed in the Civil War).

On December 20, 1879 the annual election of Officers for the Eureka Guard Company was carried out with James B. Brown elected Captain, William P. Hanna was promoted to 1st Lieutenant, and James B. Kelecher elected 2nd Lieutenant. During 1880 much more attention was paid to their arms, accoutrements, and property. The Company spent much of it’s time on the execution of the manual of drill and on tactics. In March, the company elected the following civil officers: T. B. Cutler, recording Secretary; R. B. Dickson, Financial Secretary; and C. G. Taylor, Treasurer. R. W. Rideout, N. N. Brown, and J. E. Mathews were elected as Financial Committeemen.

The Guards held their first picnic and target practice on June 5, 1880 at Fairhaven on the Samoa Peninsula. At their Fourth of July Ball, the Guards wore their new Dress uniforms for the first time. They paraded and gave a dance to celebrate Admission Day, and were inspected by Brigadier General Wall on November 20, 1880. During 1880, the Guards elected twenty-one new members, rejected one and had one application withdrawn. The New members were: H. Anderson, H. Stere, A. C. Tibbets, J. F. Coonan, W. H. Wyman, S. T. Carr, A. H. Buhne, C. F. Gardner, E. D. Higgins, S. Stireson, C. W. Richardson, S. B. Kingsbury, A. Gaendrot, J. W. Spencer, Thomas Gregory, C. H. Humphries, Alex Smith, A. G. Brown, J. G. H. Chamberlin, A. W. Ross, J. A. Palmer. F. A. Weaver was refused membership, and the application of Kimball Hatch was withdrawn.

In March 1881, the Eureka Guards elected the following civil officers: T. B. Cutler, recording Secretary; R. B. Dickson, Financial Secretary; and C. G. Taylor, Treasurer. R. Walter Pierce, N. N. Brown, and J. E. Mathews were elected as Financial Committeemen.

Brigadier General Wall inspected the Company during April 1881, and its participation in the Decoration Day services at Myrtle Grove Cemetery, with a target shoot at South Park afterwards. The Guards participated in the Fourth of July celebration and gave a Ball that evening. The Company was inspected by Adjutant-General Backus in August, and celebrated Admission Day with a target shoot and Ball, where they received a flag. The Guards also participated in the memorial parade when President Garfield died. They also took part in the Veteran’s home fund-raising ball.

The Guards elected fourteen members during 1881, and rejected one, and had two applications withdrawn. The new members were: W. H. Gallagher, F. H. Wunderlich, W. G. Stuart, J. L. Maurer, J. L. Porter, J. K. Miller, J. C. Herrick, Jos. Thope, Henry Mathews, David Ferrier, W. M. Perrott, D. W. Wilson, Garcelon, and Daniel J. Foley. The application of P. W. Mathews was rejected, and J. D. Meyers and Thomas McGeorge withdrew their applications.

December 1881 the annual election of Officers for the Eureka Guard Company for 1882 took place at the Armory with 49 members present. J. W. Freese was elected Captain, William P. Hanna was again elected 1st Lieutenant, and James T. Kelecher was again elected 2nd Lieutenant. During March 1882 the election of the civil officers took place, and the following were elected: J. D. Maurer, Recording Secretary, and J. T. Kelecher, W. Pierce, and N. N. Brown were elected as Financial Committeemen.

The Guards had a target shoot in January 1882, held a special meeting in March to honor retiring Captain Brown. They probably received the new Model 1881 spiked dress helmets about this time, as the 1885 photo shows a few members wearing them. During 1882, the Company elected twenty-four regular members and discharged one --- who was later re-elected. Those elected were: A. Grant, T. K. Carr, Jno. McIntosh, A. W. Hanna, Gregory Smith, Caleb Vane, C. A. Monroe, Jas. A. Otto, Frank Phelps, T. A. Cutler, Hubert Long, H. L. Atkinson, Josh. Vansant, Jr., Samuel Jones, H. R. Bradford, W. A. Webster, J. E. Carey, F. W. Pine, Jno. McCallen, Jos. Tidd, Wm. Crichton, Wm. McNamara, Jas. Webster, and H. B. Taylor. Edward Higgins was discharged in July, but re-elected in November, 1882.

Early in January , 1883, Captain J. W. Freese resigned, and was temporarily succeeded by Lieutenant William P. Hanna. Later that month, James T. Keleher was elected Captain, and John L. Crichton, Second Lieutenant.

The Company participated in the Decoration Day services at Myrtle Grove Cemetery, and took part in the Fourth of July celebration in Arcata. The Company planned a three day encampment for Admission Day, but were ordered to hold a target practice instead. The year ended with a reunion. They had accepted fifteen members and rejected three.

Those elected in 1883 were: J. E. Bernard, E. C. Bonstell, J.C. Smith, S. A. McDonald, S. C. Seary, Jno. A McCarty, Frank Page, Frank Baldwin, C. M. Hyson, J. W. Chisholm, M. H. Strout, J. C. McKenna, Robt. McClelland, W. A. McNamara, Loren Dunton. Wm. Murphy, J. H. Haller, and Jas. C. Ryan were rejected.

1884 began with a military ball on 15 March (formation day), and the election of Wm. P. Hanna as First Lieutenant, and D. J. Foley as Secretary in April. The Company took part in the Deoration Day services, and accepted fifteen members during the year.

Those elected in 1884 were: August Peterson, John J. Kellon, Richard A. Delamore, John P. Donnelly, P. Rolermund, Walter F. Dickson, Jas. H. Wallace, F. G. Barnum, D. P. Albee, George A. King, Thos. R. Bramstone, Daniel Murphy, Robert Smith, John Murphy, and Horace Phares.

About this time the members of the Eureka Guard Company formed a Rifle Association, which was active for several years. The Eureka Guards Rifle Association, Records (Unpublished manuscript is in the possession of the Humboldt County Historical Society).

On February 12, 1885, A. W. Hanna was elected Captain, and W. D. Crichton, Second Lieutenant. The Company took part in the Memorial Day services, and held exhibition drills in Eureka and Arcata during July.

In 1885, for the first time in the history of the State, the Legislature made an appropriation for a Division or general Encampment of the entire California National Guard, which was to be held in Santa Cruz, California, from August fifteenth to the twenty-third.

In August, the Eureka Guard Company went to the State Encampment at Camp Stoneman, Santa Cruz, CA (See photo below). The Eureka Guard was one of the units composing the First Provisional Regiment, and won the praise of the commanding officers by their soldierly appearance and splendid drilling (Adjutant general Report 1885-1886). They were inspected by Brigadier General Wall during September.

W. D. Crichton was elected Treasurer; and T. B. Cutler, H. L. Atkinson, and D. H. Chamberlin were elected Financial Committeemen. During 1885 twenty-six applicants were accepted, seven were rejected, the name of another was withdrawn; six members were honorably discharged. It was during this year that the Eureka Guard Company was called upon to perform military service for the only time in their existence. They assisted the Sheriff in guarding the jail during the height of the anti-Chinese riots in Eureka, and remained on call for some time afterwards.

The applicants accepted during 1885 were: Robt. T.  Murray, J. A. Welton, Sam’l  A. Randall, W. P. Johnston, Louis Everding, A. G. Hinckley, Wallace Dinsmore, S. A. Campbell, Denver Seveir, M. W. Dunbar, E. C. Anderson, D. H. Halliday, D. G. Reid, W. H. Triggs, J. N. Gillett (22nd Governor of California 1907-1911), Jas. Tydd, Thos. Thompson, W. Stuart, Wm. McLaren, Chas. Moore, Nahum Fay, M. H. Strong, D. J. Marshall, F. W. Hill, W. F. Dickson, and F. W. McCann. Those applicants rejected were: Lot. M. Brown, Chas. Freese, H. A. Harby, Geo. Fletcher, James W. Whiting, Geo. F. Hill, and T. A. Myers. The application of  M. F. Wolford was withdrawn. Those members who were given honorable discharges were: Halliday, S. McDonald, D. Murphy, M. W. Strout, and A. Ross. Private Winzler requested that he be honorably discharged along with the other six members, but when the members present voted, his request was denied.

1885 the Eureka Guard Company at Camp Stoneman in Santa Cruz, California. (Humboldt Historical Society).

1886 opened with representatives of the Eureka Guard Company attempting to have Captain Hanna cover the shortages in his accounts. When their attempts failed, the Financial Committee charged Captain Hanna with embezzling the Company fund, embezzling the State fund, and conduct unbecoming a gentleman and officer. These charges were signed and forwarded to headquarters. The authorities in Sacramento order the Captain arrested and court-marshaled. After some negotiation in which the Company expressed its disapproval of certain aspects of the proceeding, Captain Hanna was court-Marshaled and found guilty of embezzling Company funds. The Company appealed the decision.

James Norris Gillett (22nd Governor of California 1907-1911).
Governor Gillett’s Business Card for the Eureka Guard Company c. 1885.

F. A. Cutler was elected First Lieutenant in February 1886. A military ball was held on 15 March, the company participated in the Memorial Day exercises. The Company paraded and gave a ball on the Fourth of July. The Guard Company encamped near Rohnerville during August, held a target shoot in September and a social in October. In June Wm. Triggs was elected Financial Secretary, and E. Amsdem, was elected to the Financial committee. The Guard Company accepted eleven members during 1886, and rejected one.

Those accepted in 1886 were: A. T. Smith, J. Burson, Willard Wells, Louis Everding, Sam’l Silkwood, Wm. Taylor, James Kirby, Geo. Kerr, Lot. M. Brown, Robt. Mathews, and J. G. Fitzmier. E. G. Pluke was refused membership.

In 1887, the Guards participated in the Paper Carnival, and held a military ball on the 15th of March. They elected J. L. Crichton Captain, D. J. Foley Second Lieutenant, and Thos. K. Carr Secretary in May. They took part in the Fourth of July parade. They held a target practice and ball in September. The company accepted thirty-three applicants, and rejected three others; and two applications were withdrawn. One honorary member was elected; twenty-one honorable discharges were granted, and the request for another was refused.

Those application for 1887 that were accepted: R. W. Crichton, A. Walter, J. Power, P. C. Johnston, M. S. Griffith, M. A. Woolford, N. Brackett, F. E. Chase, J. L. Durivage, James Ballard, M. Slaven, A. Winzler, S. A. McDonald, James Griffith, H. L. Ford, D. W. Thurston, G. R. Georgeson, Wm. Vansant, W. A. McNamara, E. C. Bonstell, A. S. Cummings, Geo. Vance, S. L. Zane, Eugene Boom, T. H. Selvage, H. E. Dodge, Edward McLaughlin, W. J. Pierce, H. W. Smith, Jno. Goodman, Jas. L. Kinross, Chas. W. Freese, and E. G. Kramer. Those applications rejected were: C. N. Underhill, Wm. L. Winzler, and M. W. Nixon. The applications of John A. Hasta, and J. J. Scanlon were withdrawn. S. A. Campbell was voted an honorary membership. Those who received honorable discharges were: A. A. Brown, John Appleby, Ewd. Everding, C. G. Taylor, E. C. Bonstell, F. Baldwin, J. Burson, Jas. Cary, F. W. Hill, G. A. King, A. G. Winzler, L. T. Wells, Cunningham, and J. Vansant. L. T. Carr requested an honorable discharge, but was not granted one.

The Eureka Guard began 1888 by electing Daniel J. Foley First Lieutenant and W. P. Pratt Second Lieutenant. A military ball was held on the 15th of March (Foundation Day). A Social was held in April. The Company participated in the Memorial Day exercises. Another Social was held in July, and the annual Fourth of July day Parade. The Company held a target shoot in September. New Uniforms were received in November. Twenty-eight applications were accepted during 1888.

Those applications for membership that were accepted in 1888 were: W. H. Parrott, E. S. Scott, R. P. Garcelon, Allen H. Honde, Stanley H. Stevens, Fred Kilburn, F. W. Hill, Wm. Kane, W. C. Graham, Rodney Burns, F. W. Smith, W. L. Dozier, Riley Cooley, Wm. Rooney, J. J. Quill, C. A. Monroe, C. G. McGowan, Ed. Cockrane, W. J. Schalbert, Bela C. King, Wm. Rogers, Jno. McCallen, Chas. H. Lea, Geo. A. King, Jno. Woods, W. S. Falk, Jas. Ellision, and S. C. Mayer.

In February, 1889 Jno. McCarty was elected Secretary, and the military ball was held on the 15th of March. Later in March a social was given in which the “Arcata Guard” participated. In April, the company took part in exercises commemorating the centennial of the inauguration of George Washington both in Eureka and Arcata. Jno. L. Crichton was elected Captain in April, and the company participated in the Memorial Day services. The Guards went into camp at Compton Park in August. A target shoot and social were held in October. There were twenty-four applications accepted and four rejected in 1889.

Those applications for 1889 membership that were accepted: Jas. T. Kelley, R. P. Gordon, Morris Steinberg, C. Simmons, C. B. Wing, H. Cockrane, J. J. Jacobs, A. Nelson, F. Louther, Jno. McCallen, Geo. F. Allen, Elisah M. Frost, B. McGarrighan, Fred. Robinson, Geo. Marble, J. J. McDonald, H. M. Michel, J. A. Husta, Wm. Ditty, W. H. Wyman, Wm. Stove Hanna, Fred. Geo. Knack, Ben Elsmore, and Homer Brand. Those rejected were: Wesly R. Crichton, T. Reynolds, Richard Edward Turney, and S. S. Crow.

On 21 December 1889 The Arcata Guard Company was formed. It elected E. J. Mullen Captain, H. W. Jackson 1st Lieutenant, and L. D. Grater 2nd Lieutenant.

At their February, 1890 meeting the Eureka Guard Company elected Daniel J. Foley First Lieutenant, and Jno. McCarty Second Lieutenant.

13 May 1890 the Eureka Guard Company was redesignated Company A, and the Arcata Guard Company was redesignated as Company B, both of the 10th Infantry Battalion, 6th Brigade California National Guard. At this time the Officers of the Battalion were: J. W. Feese, Brigadier-General commanding the 6th Brigade, J. B. Brown, Lt-Col. and Acting Adjutant-General, J. T. Kelecher, Major and Inspector, Jos A. Shaw, Major and Engineer, J. P. Hopkins, Major and Ordnance Officer, C. M. Wheeler, Major and Judge Advocate, John Harpst, Major and Quartermaster, J. C. Bull, Major and Commissary, Ruben Gross, Lt-Col. And Surgeon, Fred W. Bell, Major and Paymaster, C. G. Taylor, Major and Inspector of Rifle Practice, Willard Wells, Major and Signal Officer, David Cutten, Captain and Aide-de-camp, Ora Butterfield, Staff Orderly, and Harry Connick, Staff Orderly.

The Officers of Company A were: J. L. Creighton, Captain, D. J. Foley, 1st Lieutenant, and Jno. McCarthy, 2nd Lieutenant.

The Officers of Company B were: E. J. Mullen, Captain, H. W. Jackson, 1st Lieutenant, and L. D. Grater, 2nd Lieutenant.

A Company held their Military ball on 15 March, and the members decided to hold a monthly social. A Company took part in the Memorial Day exercises, and Fourth of July Celebration in Arcata. They were to Camp Orton near Blue Lake in August, and visited the Arcata Guard. Nineteen applications were accepted during 1890, and four were rejected; two members were honorably discharged.

The 10th Infantry Battalion had it’s own band. It apperars from the photograph above they are all wearing the basic Army Infantry Bandsman Uniform (Blue coat with white collar, cuffs and chest decorations), except the unknown man in the back center. They have added red shoulder knots, Plumes, and cords for the model 1881 (mounted style) dress Helmet. Professor McLaren is wearing gold shoulder boards and gold cords (Officer) and a red plume. McLaren appears to be wearing a California shooting badge also. National Guard units took a lot of pride in their bands and social events at this period in history, and the 10th was no exception. Many of the Officers and enlisted men had their own personal cards made up showing their tie to their unit (see cards).


10th Infantry Battalion Band, Eureka, CA. photo (taken between 1891and 1895) (Humboldt Historical Society).

The members of the 10th Infantry Battalion Band in the photo are: Left to right Back row all standing: 1. Harry Wambold (whiskers), 2. W. B. Bailey (short man), 3. August Wunderlich (tall man), 4. Chas. E. Longford (short man), 5. ???? (tall man with old uniform and cap with white plume), 6. Fred Roberts (short man), 7. John H. Young (tall man), 8. Otha McDermott (short man), 9. Arthur McConnell (tall man).

Second Row seated: 1. Professor McLaren, 2. J. H. Mercer, 3. Robert Keller, 4. Jocko Johnson, 5. R. M. Ring (printer), 6. George Wing, On Floor by drum: left 1. Charles O. Weilock, Right 2. Alfred McCarthy.

Those members elected for Company A for 1890 were: Frank A. Smith, Wesly R. Crichton, Julius Fleckenstein, Hallie F. Ditty, Jos. Kingston, Charles Carr, H. S. Richardson, Robt. Simpson, David Mann, F. Coockson, S. B. Caldwell, Fred. W. Constable, Geo. A. Elsworth, and H. L. Hamman. Joe Middlemus, R. W. Nixon, H. D. Nixon, and H. A. Clayton were refused membership. H. Higgins, and W. Graham were made honorary members.

In April 1891, David Mann was elected secretary. It was announced that the loft over the stables at Fourth and G Streets would be the new Eureka Guards Armory. Captain Crichton was re-elected. The Guards decorated graves on Memorial Day. They attended the Santa Cruz Encampment at Camp Stoneman. They Held a target shoot in September.

During 1891, twenty-four applicants were accepted, five were rejected, and the name of another was withdrawn. Those members elected were: Jos. Manning, J. Ryan, M. Leeman, Robt. W. Porter, Robt. Johnson, Adolph B. Adams (last Commander of the Fifth Division Naval Militia of Eureka), Oscar Meyers, J. C. Ryan, E. Lidstone, Joseph Meyers, William Sutton, A. M. Gardner, Joseph Tidd, Milton Long, Geo. L. Hill, Steming, Lew F. Otis, Harry F. Wambold, J. H. Young, H. W. Scott, W. J. Kenner, Ed. Coady, Byron Wellock, and Forenzo Gardner. H. McClintock, Henry McClintock, James H. Revoy, Eugene Mathews, and J. W. Johnson were rejected. The application of M. Randle was withdrawn.

The Company began 1892 by re-electing Daniel J. Foly First Lieutenant, and electing C. V. Otto as Second Lieutenant in February. The Military Founders day ball was held on March 15th. In April the Company purchased athletic equipment. The Company participated in the Memorial Day observance. The Company elected Guy L. Roberts secretary, and participated in the Battalion target practice in June. The men went to the Santa Cruz encampment in August. They held a target shoot in September.

During 1892 thirty-one applicants were accepted, one was rejected, and two names were withdrawn. Those members elected were: Ira E. Day, Harry Barlow, Wilford McCann, W. B. Cochrane, Jas. Simpson, August Weitzler, Geo. H. Shaw, Ingwald M. Ring, Pearl Frost, Gilbert Hulse, John Strain, Oscar A. Betterly, E. J. Shepard, A. W. Cole, D. W. Donshue, J. F. Partias, Mark Langdon Wildes, E. D. Moore, Wm. P. Hanna, Thomas Fox, William B. Bailey, C. W. Crow, Frank Phelps, C. F. Daniels, Adolf Strong, Wilbert S. Daniels, James Olehan, Addington P. Long, Geo. P. Smith, F. Lowther, E. L. Mathews. John L. Traver was refused membership, and the applications of F. W. Cook was withdrawn.

1893 was a busy year for the Guard. In January David Mann was elected secretary. Also in January Captain Crichton assised in founding a company in Ferndale. No record of another company has been found so this may have been a platoon or squad. A reunion Ball was held in March. In May D. J. Foley was elected Captain, C. V. Otto, First Lieutenant, and Thos. H. Chope Second Lieutenant. The Company participated in the Memorial Day exercises. The Guards played host to the Second Artillery Regiment of San Francisco when it encamped locally, and they held their annual target shoot in September.

During 1893 the Company accepted twenty-eight applicants, rejected three, and the application of another was withdrawn. Those members elected were: James Shaw, Edward Inman, Clarence T. Kelley, Claude E. Young, C. H. Vallier, W. J. Kenner, Norman McKay, W. E. Jones, O. A. Olsen, Leslie Cottrell, Robt. H. Simpson, B. J. Burns, Robt. Rudder, Geo. S. Knacke, Clarence Cathey, Howard Cousins, W. H. McGrath, G. C. Marshall, W. H. Bell, Stanley Stevens, C. L. Pauckenshamer, T. R. Vance, H. B. Smith, Fred Devoy, W. H. Scott, H. Wambold, Ralph E. Gauyiard, and Jas. E. Labor. Those applicants refused membership were: Geo. W. Fry, J. H. Revoy, and H. E. Brown. The application of B. Bently was withdrawn.

In 1894 the Guard held a ball in March, and participated in the Memorial Day celebration. They held a target shoot at South Park in June, during which month they also received new uniforms. The Company was present at the School building flag raising on the fourth of July, and gave a ball that evening. They marched to Freshwater with Company B of Arcata for an encampment. They held a ball on Admissions Day. On the 23rd of September the Guards held a target shoot at South Park, which was covered in the Daily Humboldt Times, of Eureka 27 September 1894. The article is as follows:

“Target Practice” “The members of Co. A, N.G.C., held their semi-annual target practice at South Park last Sunday. The following are the scores made by the different men: A. B. Adams 29; W. H. Bell 32; W. B. Bailey 26; B. O. Betterly 33; E. A. Betterly 38; O. A. Betterly 29; R. Burns 38; S. Caldwell 25; W. H. Cochrane 28; T. H. Chope 38; C. Daniels 35; W. Daniels 35; F. H. Devoy 34; John Feckenstein 33, D. J. Foley 36; E. M. Frost 35; F. T. Grant 11; A. D. Halloran 31; B. Hamilton 12; F. Johnson 11; Robert Johnston 40; G. F. Knacke 5; E. Lidstone 32; M. M. Didstone 19; A. P. Long 39; J. B. Manning 39; L. C. Mayer 20; O. Mayer 14; F. H. Moore 36; W. McCann 21; Edward McLaughlin 28; O. McDermott 20; A. W. McConnell 34; Ole Olsen 31; C. V. Otto 35; J. Palmquist 32; F. Richardson 28; George F. Roberts 35; R. Rudlin 40; J. Strain 44; A. Stemmins 14; Robert Simpson 15; George P. Smith 31; H. B. Smith 34; W. H. Scott 23; P. A. Strong 30; J. E. Tabor 31; W. W. Taylor 37; T. R. Vann 28; O. Van Wormer 30; H. F. Wamboldt 41; A. G. Weitzel 14; William Werst 28; M. L. Wildes 31; George Wing 26; William Wing 19; J. P. Wunderlich 23; C. Young 18; J. H. Young 29; Geo. Zientara 27; Joseph Zuhlke 23. Robert Rudlin having made the best score for the two practices of the year, wins the gold medal given by General Brown and the staff of the 6th Brigade, N.G.C.”

The Guard finished out the year with dance in October, and a New Years’s Eve Ball.

During 1894 the Company accepted seventeen applicants, one was rejected, and another withdrawn. Those members elected were: Arthur Hallorhan, Peter Rutledge, Geo. C. Clark, John Queen, Norton Lidstone, Fred Grant, Chas. Flynn, Otis Johnston, Wm. Werst, Henry P. Winston, Chas. C. Lawrence, Arthur McConnell, L. C. Mayer, John Palmquist, Fred C. Cook, H. M. Little, Robert Pyles. Thos. McGarrigan was rejected, and Gilbert Hulse withdrew his application.

The first important events of  1895 was an inspection and ball in March. The Company did escort duty on Memorial Day, and was inspected again in June. The Company took part in the Fourth of July celebration and gave a ball that night. They also participated in the July carnival. They elected Daniel J. Foley Captain, Chas. V. Otto First Lieutenant, and Edward McLaughlin Second Lieutenant later in July. They gave a social after the target shoot in September.

By the end of 1895 the Eureka Guards had ceased to exist. As a result of the State military forces being reorganized, Company B, and the 10th Infantry Battalion were deactivated. Company A, Tenth Infantry Battalion, Sixth Brigade was reconstituted July 23, 1895 as Company A, First Infantry Regiment, Second Brigade, Adjutant Generals Report, 1895-96, General Order No. 11, page 76.

Company A, First Infantry Regiment, Second Brigade was discontinued as an Infantry Company and enrolled as the Fifth Division in the California Naval Militia Battalion on December 7, 1895. Adjutant Generals Report 1895-96, General Order No. 17, page 87. Lieutenant Commander Daniel J. Foley, Lieutenant Jr. Grade Charles V. Otto, and Ensign Edward H. McLaughlin, retained their former rank as of May 17, 1893 and July 22, 1895, when they were Captain, First Lieutenant, and Second Lieutenant of Company A, Tenth Infantry Battalion. Adjutant Generals Report, 1895-96, General Order No. 3, page 115.

Although their records show no meetings after October 29th 1895, a local newspaper stated that “… The Guards went out of service eating clam chowder…”

During 1895 the Guards accepted eighteen applicants, rejected three, and allowed another to withdraw, and discharged two members. Those members elected were: Gilbert Hulse, Geo. French, Dudley Stewart, Fred Metcalf, James Jansen, Otis Johnston, Thos. Knowles, Geo. Cornwall, Edward Clyde, C. A. Fulmore, David Marks, C. A. Pierce, Nels. O. Mentensen, J. D. Foasen, J. P. Wunderlich, Geo. F. Roberts, Geo. Ballard, W. H. Jewett, J. Scotton, Alford L. Stevenson. Those rejected were: Gaberial Farreri, Jos. Hinch, and Clarence Devlin. The application of Francis Urban was withdrawn.


Business Card of Members of the Eureka Guard Company At Camp Stoneman 1885.
More Business Card of Members of the Eureka Guard Company At Camp Stoneman 1885

For further Information see Fifth Division (Eureka), Naval Militia of California.

Sources of Information

Original Records Eureka Guard Company, Humboldt County Historical Society “St. Clair Adams collection” Contains original Company books, meeting notes, etc. The Society has the originals of photographs used in this article.

History of the Naval Reserve in Humboldt County by G. C. Harber,  Report “Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of History 196 to Dr. Palais, 22 January 1960, (unpublished Manuscript) – Humboldt University Library – Humboldt Room.

Daily Humboldt Times Newspaper September 27, 1894.

Albert, G. J. Jr., SP5 Jul 1985. Brief Overview of Military Units of Humboldt County (unpublished Manuscript). – Humboldt State University Library – Humboldt Room.

Photographs by kind permission of the Humboldt Historical Society.

Business cards of the Eureka Guard Company c. 1885 by permission of Sergeant First Class Robert J. Crawley.

Written 30 April 2008, Posted 25 January 2009

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