California State Military Department
The California State Military Museum
A United States Army Museum Activity
Preserving California's Military Heritage
California Militia and National Guard Unit Histories
Outline History of the California National Guard (1950)
 
The following was extracted from the 1950 edition of the California Blue Book.

The Adjutant General

The Adjutant General, Major General C. D. O'Sullivan, is Chief of Staff of the Governor and subordinate only to him. The Adjutant General administers and controls the affairs of the Office of the Adjutant General which is organized according to general staff doctrine and procedure as set forth in Department of Defense regulations. The office consists of an Assistant Adjutant General, Assistant Adjutant General for Air, Personnel, Administration, Operations and Training, Supply and Logistics, Liaison, Armory Construction, Finance, Information and Recruiting, Selective Service, and State Maintenance Sections; necessary civil service and active duty personnel; a Headquarters Staff, field organizations and installations. Subordinate only to the Governor, the Adjutant General administers, directs, and controls the California National Guard which consists of the State Headquarters Detachment, 61st and 62d Fighter Wings, 40th and 49th Infantry Divisions, 112th and 114th AAA Brigades, the Provisional Brigade-Non Divisional Troops, and other necessary units comprising a total strength of approximately 27,000 troops.

The California National Guard is established pursuant to the Militia Clause of the Constitution of the United States as an integral part of the national defense. The California State Constitution authorizes the Legislature to provide for the organization and discipline of the militia. Pursuant to this constitutional authority, the Legislature adopted the Military and Veterans Code which implements the provisions of the State Constitution.

The National Guard receives pay and equipment from the Federal Government and is fully organized and equipped in accordance with Army and Air Force tables of organization.
The California National Guard is a federally supervised military force of volunteer citizen-soldiers with a dual federal-state status. It provides a state force in peacetime which, under the direction of the Governor, will serve for local security, and give relief in time of crisis and disaster. In time of war, it represents a balanced armed force of trained and equipped civilian volunteers capable of instant mobilization and ready to fight any place in the world.

The Adjutant General administers, directs, and controls the Naval Militia, when organized, and the unorganized militia when activated. He directs and controls the California Defense and Security Corps and the California Reserve and Retired List. The Adjutant General administers the affairs of the California Cadet Corps which consists of 80 schools with 6,000 cadets. The corps is also supervised by an executive officer, assistant executive officer and regional supervisors of cadets, all of whom are state civil service personnel.

The Adjutant General holds office at the pleasure of the Governor, and issues all orders in the name of the Governor. The Adjutant General per-forms such duties as are prescribed by law and by the Governor. He is responsible for the training, discipline, and instruction of the National Guard and for all military property issued to the State by the United States or owned by the State. He keeps a correct account of all expenses, and issues all military property as directed by the Governor. He has control of all armories that are built, being built, or acquired by the State, which armories total the sum of 75. He supervises the affairs of the United States Property and Disbursing Officer at Camp San Luis Obispo, California.

Major General Curtis Dion O'Sullivan

U. S., was born in London, England, October 29, 1894. Received his early schooling at St. Aubyns, Rottingdean, Sussex; and at Westminster School, London, England. First came to California in 1895. Graduated from University of California with B.A. degree, 1915, and M.A., 1916. On December 27, 1917, he was married to Helen Hooper, and they have two sons: Cornelius Dion O'Sullivan-killed in action-and Curtis Hooper O'Sullivan. He served as Captain of Infantry, 1917-1919; Colonel of Infantry, 1941-1946; Commanding General, 49th Infantry Division, 1950. Member, California Society of Pioneers; Sutter Club; American Legion; Veterans of Foreign Wars; M. O. W. W.; 7th Division Association; Phi Beta Kappa; Phi Delta Phi; Phi Delta Theta; National Guard Association; California National Guard Association; Adjutant General Association; Newcomen Society; University of California Alumni Association, Trustee, Phelan Estate. Former President, Mills Estate, Incorporated. Former President, Building Owners Managers Association of San Francisco. Former Director, San Francisco Real Estate Board. Appointed Adjutant General of the State of California April 29, 1946.

Outline History of the California National Guard

Since an early period, the American communities have observed the distinction that exists between local security and the defense of all the colonies and the Nation. The principle of localization and of combination for a common cause was the motivating force that prompted the First Legislature of the State of California to adopt a measure on April 4, 1850, concerning volunteer or independent companies. Enacted as Chapter 54, Statutes of 1850, this original law provided that a judge of the superior court of a county should cause a suitable person to open a book, and to enter therein the names of all persons able to perform military duty and who make application for such duty. After required notice, the volunteers were organized, and their officers and noncommissioned officers selected by election. The volunteer or independent companies were armed and equipped as in the Army of the United States. The units adopted a constitution and by-laws as well as rules and regulations for the government of the personnel and the determination of fines and penalties.

At the same First Session of the Legislature and on April 10, 1850, Chapter 76 was adopted by which provision was made for the organization of the militia. The enrolled militia and volunteers or independent companies were organized into four divisions and eight brigades, and the counties divided and assigned to such units. The State Legislature elected four Major-Generals and eight Brigadier Generals; one Adjutant General, to rank as a Brigadier General; and one Quartermaster General, to rank as a Brigadier General. Every free, white, able-bodied male citizen of the State was required to perform military duty or to pay the sum of $2 as a commutation for the nonperformance of such duty. Such payment exempted the person from duty except in case of war, insurrection, invasion, assistance to the sheriff, or a requisition of the militia.

In the Third Session of the Legislature, provision was made by the adoption of Chapter XL, Statutes of 1852, for the full employment of the militia in matters of security. A company of Rangers was organized in the Fourth Session for the purpose of capturing the famous bandit Joaquin Murietta. Pursuant to the authority of these early statutes, 307 volunteer or independent companies were organized. The first unit to be organized was the First California Guard and officially mustered April 5, 1850. On July 27, 1849, the early organizations were varied in type. They consisted of guards, rifles, dragoons, rangers, volunteers, light artillery, rough and ready cavalry, lanceros, fusileers, hussars, carbineers, mountaineers, zouaves, sharp-shooters, cadets, grenadiers, tirelleurs, musketeers, yaigers, and similar units. The companies were concerned with Indian attacks, bandits, riots, the Vigilantes, protection of officials, mining claim disputes, and other civil disturbances. By Statutes of 1855, Chapter CXV, the militia was again reorganized. Provision was made for six divisions and 12 brigades, and for more extended military rolls to be kept by the county assessors of each county. In the Thirteenth Session of the Legislature in 1862, by Chapter CCXCVI, the militia was reorganized, staffs provided, bonds required, military duty exacted, enrollments and assessments created, volunteers companies reorganized, battalions and regiments of the militia created, muster rolls defined, the militia classified, activation of the militia determined, disciplinary procedure adopted, courts-martial provided, compensation fixed, arms and equipment provided, and prior conflicting acts repealed.

In 1864, the Fifteenth Session of Legislature witnessed a serious "tardy manner" in which volunteers responded to the Governor's call for men to serve the United States. A "Line Officer's Relief Fund" was created to pay line officers of the companies of California Volunteers. The Sixteenth Session of the Legislature adopted Chapter DXLI, Statutes of 1866, and for the first time employed the term "National Guard" as the title of the organized uniformed troops of the State. The statute provided for the organization of the National Guard, General and Special Staffs, formations of companies, service, arms and equipment, created a Board of Organization, formed a Board of Military Auditors, adopted a system of instruction and drill, described in detail the duties of the Adjutant General, created privileges and exemptions, allowances and expenses, limited the issuance of arms to troops only, provided for military musters and active service.

The Seventeenth Legislature reduced the 80 companies previously provided to 60 by the adoption of Chapter CCCCXCX, Statutes of 1867-1868. The Eighteenth Legislature created the University Cadets and provided for military instruction in the University of California under the control of the Board of Regents. The Nineteenth Legislature recognized military academies, provided for commissions to military instructors and the issuance of arms to such institutions. The Twentieth Session of the Legislature adopted Section 64 of the Political Code and granted exemptions from payment of poll tax, road tax, and head taxes. A further exemption from military duty, except in time of war, was granted to members of the National Guard who had served the State in a military manner for seven years. The Twenty-first Legislature reduced the military expense of the State, and limited the National Guard to 36 companies. The Twenty-fourth Legislature, by Chap-ter XXXVII, Statutes of 1881, provided for the creation of cavalry, infantry, artillery, light batteries, and gatling batteries and extended to the Governor the power to make rules for the National Guard consistent with the statutes. The Twenty-seventh Legislature authorized the increase of the National Guard companies to 50 and to be distributed throughout the State pursuant to military requirements.

By Statutes of 1889, Chapter CCLXVI, the Twenty-eighth Legislature organized the National Guard into six brigades and apportioned the counties to these brigades. An increase to 60 companies was authorized; new provisions were made for the discharge of enlisted men; a signal corps was created; staffs were reorganized; parades required as described; cadet companies authorized; and the records of the California Volunteers were to be rewritten and revised. During this period, Congress adopted the Henderson Bill to pro-mote the efficiency of the militia. The Twenty-ninth Session of the Legislature witnessed the adoption of Chapter CLXXVI, Statutes of 1891, by which a naval battalion was attached to the National Guard. An annual encampment was directed and provision made for active duty compensation. By Chapter XCII, Statutes of 1893, the National Guard was increased to 70 companies. Early provision was made by the Legislature for the suppression of riots. Chapter CLXX, Statutes of 1895, provided for the employment of the troops to suppress an insurrection or rebellion, to disperse a mob, or to enforce the execution of the laws of the State. Chapter CLXVIII, Statutes of 1895, reduced the National Guard to 69 companies. In 1897, the National Guard was organized into three brigades by Chapter CII, Statutes of 1897. The Thirty-third Session of the Legislature adopted Chapter CXXVII, Statutes of 1899, and thereby extended leaves of absence to members of the National Guard who were mustered into federal service as volunteers into the Spanish-American War.

By Statutes of 1901, Chapter CLXXXIV, the National Guard was organized into 65 companies, of which 56 companies were to be cavalry, artillery, infantry, or signal corps, and five divisions of the naval militia. In 1905, the Thirty-sixth Legislature adopted Chapter CCLXXXVIII and organized the National Guard into one company of engineers, two companies of signalmen, not less than four companies of coast artillery, four troops of cavalry, not to exceed 60 companies of infantry, a medical detachment, not to exceed seven divisions of Naval Militia, the officers of the staff of the commander-in-chief, officers of the retired list, and the total of all arms and services not to exceed 78 companies. By Chapter 378, Statutes of 1909, the Legislature provided that the National Guard shall consist of such members of companies of engineers, signalmen, coast artillery, infantry, cavalry, and divisions of naval militia as the Governor shall direct, provided the total number of companies did not exceed 84. Chapter 353, Statutes of 1909, continued the practice of the election of field officers by the field and company officers, and the election of company officers by the members of the organization.

By Chapter 600, Statutes of 1913, the militia was divided into two classes: 1. The organized militia. 2. The reserve militia. The organized militia was to be known as the National Guard of California. The Legislature, by Chapter 409, Statutes of 1915, authorized the organization of not to exceed 100 companies, troops, batteries, divisions, and marine companies, and by Chapter 254, appropriated the sum of 810,000 to entertain delegates to the Convention of the National Guard Association of the United States.

Unsettled and threatening conditions of international relations prompted the Legislature to adopt as an urgency measure Chapter 16, Statutes of 1917, by which the organization of the National Guard of the State was brought into accord with the National Defense Act of June 3, 1916. Effective war-time reorganization of the National Guard was accomplished by Chapter 207, Statutes of 1917. Chapter 241, Statutes of 1919, provided that federal service should be considered as continuous state service, granted preference to units with federal service during the reorganization process, recognized the attained federal commissioned rank of officers, and provided for privileges, exemptions, and retirements. The chapter adopted a plan for the return of the National Guard after World War I. In order to overcome conflicts in existing state law with provisions of the National Defense Act, an urgency measure was adopted in the form of Chapter 16, Statutes of 1921, by which qualifications for commission in the National Guard were brought into accord with federal requirements. Statutes of 1923, Chapter 168, extended to the Adjutant General control of all armories and arsenals in the State. The power was extended to lease camp sites and rifle ranges for the use of the National Guard by Chapter 463, Statutes of 1927. The power of eminent domain was con-firmed in the Adjutant General by Chapter 106, Statutes of 1929. By Chapter 47, the same Legislature provided that the organization of the National Guard should conform to the provisions of the National Defense Act. By Chapter 120, state employees and officers were permitted to attend military training encampments without deduction of pay. A new military status was added by Chapter 219, Statutes of 1931, whereby not to exceed 20 honorary members were authorized for each company, troops, or division. The Fiftieth Session of the Legislature witnessed the substantial revision of the military laws in the adoption of Chapter 975, Statutes of 1933, whereby a Military Code was adopted for the State. The laws governing the National Guard were assembled and rearranged, and obsolete provisions eliminated. Chapter 389, Statutes of 1935, combined the laws, and adopted a Military and Veterans Code. The code remained in the same form substantially to 1946. A revision of the code is contemplated for consideration by the Legislature in 1950, in order to harmonize the sections of the law and to add seriously required amendments that will clarify the organization and employment of the military forces of the State. The Legislature, as always, promptly responded in making changes in the military laws necessary for the security of the State, and has authorized reorganizations and new fields of action when military requirements so indicated a change.

In 1854, the First Battalion, First Infantry Regiment, was formed in San Francisco, California, and consisted of the National Lancers, San Francisco Blues and the First Light Dragoons. The battalion served during the Vigilante trouble in 1856. In May of 1861, the First Infantry Regiment consisted of eight companies to wit: First California Guard, California Fusileers, Black Hussars, California Rifles, City Guard, National Guard, Light Guard, and the French Guard. The regiment served in the coolie labor trouble, the railroad strike of 1894, in the Philippines, at Cavite, on Luzon, at Manila, on the Isle of Negros. On August 26, 1899, the regiment returned to San Francisco as the "Fighting First Regiment."
The First Regiment of Cavalry was organized on January 30, 1864. Nine cavalry units were included, to wit: First Light Dragoons, San Francisco Hussars, Jackson Dragoons, Suisun Cavalry, Redwood Cavalry, Burnett Light Horse Guard, Contra Costa Guard, New Almaden Cavalry, Jefferson Cavalry, and Lincoln Cavalry. The Cavalry Regiment was employed in the anti-Chinese labor demonstrations, the DeYoung incident, and in other disturbances.

The Third Brigade Signal Corps was organized June 18, 1889, at Stockton, California. The corps was one of the first units to offer its services in the war with Spain.

The Second Infantry Regiment was organized on December 9, 1862. The companies included were Montgomery Guard, Emmet Life Guard, McMahon Guard, Shields Guard, Emmet Rifles, Wolfe Tone Guard, Meagher Guard, Benicia Guard. The Second Regiment was known as the Irish Regiment. The regiment was employed in the Chinese coolie labor disturbances. The Second Artillery Regiment was formed when the Second Infantry Regiment was redesignated as the Second Artillery Regiment, June 1, 1881. The regiment's batteries were Batteries A to H, inclusive.

The Third Infantry Regiment has a history that began in the Second (Irish) Infantry Regiment which was mustered out in 1866, and re-entered the National Guard as the Third Infantry Regiment in 1871. The regiment was active during the Civil War, and, therefore, was mustered out of service when the Legislature reduced the National Guard companies to 80. The regiment existed from 1871 to 1881, and was employed in the coolie labor demonstrations, in the De Young incident, during the funeral of King Kalakaua of the Hawaiian Islands, and the reception given in San Francisco to President Benjamin Harrison.

The Fifth Infantry Battalion was reconstituted as the Fifth Infantry Regiment on August 1, 1885. The battalion had consisted of the Oakland Guard and the San Jose Zouaves. On January 21, 1903, Congress passed the "Dick Militia Law" and the activities of the regiment were changed to comply with the new rules. The Fifth Regiment served in the railroad strike of 1894, the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, on the Mexican border, and in World War I.

From 1880 to 1887, unattached companies were formed, consisting of the San Bernardino Cavalry, Eagle Corps, San Diego Guards, First Troop Cavalry, Oakland Light Cavalry, Forsyth Guard, Emmet Guard, and Colusa Guard. The units participated in drill, ceremonies, and minor disturbances. In 1895, four troops on unattached cavalry were reconstituted as Troops A to D, inclusive, and assigned to the First, Second and Third Brigades respectively.

The First Brigade, Signal Corps, was organized May 28, 1890, pursuant to legislation adopted April, 1889. The Second Brigade, Signal Corps, was organized April 30, 1889, and engaged in drill, encampments, and ceremonies, as'well as the railroad strike of 1894 and other disturbances. The Third Brigade, Signal Corps, was organized June 18, 1889, and formerly Signal Corps, Fourth Brigade. The corps served in the War with Spain and was mustered out in 1904. The Signal Corps, Fourth Brigade, was organized August 1, 1887, but was not a legal unit until July 17, 1889. In 1895, the entire National Guard was organized into three brigades and the Fourth Brigade was disbanded, and the signal unit transferred to the Third Brigade.

The Second Infantry Regiment, Third Brigade, was formed from the consolidation of the Second and Eighth Infantry Regiments on December 9, 1895. The regiment remained a nine-company unit until 1907, when it absorbed five companies of the disbanded Sixth Infantry Regiment. The regiment participated in drills, ceremonies, maneuvers, rifle matches. The Second Infantry Regiment did not enter the War With Spain as a unit. Company E was attached to the Sixth Regiment, California Volunteers, five other companies were made a part of the Eighth Regiment, and three companies did not enter federal service.

The Sixth Infantry Battalion, Third Brigade, was organized at Stockton, California, on July 22, 1885. The battalion consisted of the Stockton Guard, the Emmet Guard, and the Forsyth Guard. The battalion formed the basis for a reorganization into the Sixth Infantry Regiment. The battalion was known as the "Sixth Harvesters" and participated in the Moquelemos land dispute.

The First Artillery Regiment, Fourth Brigade, was formerly the First Infantry Battalion, Fourth Brigade, and Sacramento Light Artillery, and was organized March 19, 1880. The regiment participated in the Raten incident and in minor civil disturbances.

The Second Infantry Regiment, Fourth Brigade, was organized July 1, 1893, by a reconstitution of the First Artillery Regiment. The regiment consisted of eight companies, and took part in the railroad strike of 1894. The Seventh Infantry Battalion was organized July 22, 1885, and consisted of the San Diego City Guard and the Eagle Corps. Its formation marked a new interest in the militia in Southern California. The Seventh Infantry Regiment was organized May 5, 1888, and was formerly the Seventh Infantry Battalion, composed of three companies. The regiment participated in the raid= road strike of 1894 and the fire and/earthquake in San Francisco in 1906. In 1907, the unit took part in the street car strike in San Francisco, and performed service in the Mexican War. The regiment was mustered out of service November 11, 1916.

The Ninth Infantry Regiment was organized February 8, 1890, in the First Brigade, and took no part in any major activity. The Eighth Infantry Battalion, Fifth Brigade, was organized February 15, 1890. The Sixth Infantry Regiment was formed from a consolidation of the Ninth and Tenth Infantry Battalions on December 7, 1895. The regiment participated in the railroad strike of 1894, the Spanish-American War, and the fire and earth-quake of San Francisco of 1906. The Eighth Infantry Regiment was organized February 1, 1890, was reconstituted October 31, 1891, and took part in the railroad strike of 1894. On May 13, 1890, the Tenth Infantry Battalion, Sixth Brigade, was formed. The First Battalion, Coast Artillery, Second Brigade, was formed April 19, 1901. The battalion took part in the services performed during the fire and earthquake of San Francisco in 1906. The First Squadron of Cavalry was organized August 15, 1905, reorganized in 1911, and entered World War I in 1917. The squadron took part in the fire and earthquake of San Francisco in 1906.

The Coast Artillery Corps, First Coast Defense Command, was organized April 19, 1909, and the Second Coast Defense Command on June 16, 1916. The California Political Code provided for 16 companies of coast artillery, but the Adjutant General responded to federal wishes, and formed only 12 new units. During the period 1916-1918, 16 separate companies were formed, numbered numerically, and given instructions as other units.

The National Defense Act of June 3, 1916, authorized the State of California to organize one battalion of engineers. Company A, Corps of Engineers, was formed July 21, 1916, Company B was formed October 12, 1916, and Company C was organized May 28, 1917. Battery A, First Separate Battalion, Field Artillery, was formed November 1, 1921, Battery B was formed on the same date, and Battery C was created April 1, 1922. Battery B, Field Artillery, California National Guard, was formed November 29, 1920, Battery E was organized March 17, 1921, and Battery D was formed January 31, 1922. Battery A, Field Artillery, First Brigade, was organized on May 29, 1911, Battery B was formed May 31, 1911, and Battery C was created Decem-ber 14, 1912. The field artillery batteries were redesignated, and mustered into federal service in World War I.

On August 3, 1917, the First Battalion, Field Artillery, was redesignated as the First Field Artillery, and consisted of Batteries A, B, C, D, E, F, head-quarters company, and a supply company. In 1917, the Second Field Artillery was formed, and consisted of Batteries A, B, C, D, E, F, a head-quarters company, and a supply company. This regiment was mustered into federal service in World War I, and was redesignated the 144th Field Artillery, August 5, 1917. The batteries performed service on the Mexican border. The 143d Field Artillery was organized December 20, 1912, but the initial, steps in its formation started in May, 1911. On September 24, 1917, the First Field Artillery was redesignated the 143d Regiment of Field Artillery and left for France in August, 1918. The troops were assigned to the First Army as Army Artillery. The regiment was demobilized at the Presidio of_ San Francisco in January, 1919. Reorganization of the 143d Field Artillery was started in 1921 and completed in 1924, with the formation of the Second Battalion and special units. A series of infantry companies were organized as follows: Company C on May 4, 1921; Company G on June 1, 1920; Company H on July 22, 1920; Company I on August 4, 1920; Company K on August 6, 1920; Company L on August 24, 1920; Company M on October 1, 1920; First Separate Company at San Leandro on February 13, 1924; First Separate Company at Los Angeles on October 5, 1920; Second Separate Company on May 28, 1924; Second Separate Company at Fresno on October 4, 1920; Third Separate Company at Los Angeles on November 30, 1920; Third Separate Company at San Jose on June 20, 1924; Fourth Separate Company at Los Angeles in November, 1920; Fifth Separate Company at Glendale on January 2, 1921; Sixth Separate Company at Berkeley on February 3, 1921; Sixth Separate Company at San Francisco on June 30, 1921; Sixth Separate Company at Colusa on July 22, 1921; Seventeenth Separate Company at Santa Ana on August 19, 1918.

The 159th Infantry Regiment was organized October 1, 1921, Regimental Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Service Company and Howitzer Company were located at Oakland and Berkeley; the First Battalion and its units were located at Oakland and Berkeley; the Second Battalion and its units were located at Fresno, Colusa, and Sacramento; the Third Battalion and its units were located in San Francisco. Only three units of the 159th Infantry Regiment were disbanded in the 16 years of its history. The organization of the 184th Infantry Regiment in 1924 resulted in the assignment of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valley units of the 159th and 160th Regiments to the 184th Regiment. The men of the 159th Infantry Regiment per-formed service as volunteers or as militiamen during the railroad strike of 1894, during the fire and earthquake of 1906 in San Francisco, on the Mexican border, in federal service in World War I, and other civil disturbances.

The 160th Infantry Regiment was organized October 14, 1917, by the consolidation and redesignation of the former Seventh Infantry Regiment and six companies of the Second Infantry Regiment. On August 23, 1921, the 160th Infantry was reorganized with headquarters at Los Angeles. The regiment was the first organization to be mustered into the new National Guard, and consisted of the Second, Third, and Fourth Separate Battalions of Infantry which were designated the Third and Second Battalions, 160th Infantry. In the 16 years of the regiment's existence, there were very few changes in its units. It performed duty during the visit of Colonel Charles Lindbergh in his plane the Spirit of St. Louis; during the visit of the airliner Graf Zeppelin; during the strike of longshoremen in San Francisco on July 15, 1934; and during numerous ceremonies, drills, and parades.

Reorganization continued in the Coast Artillery Corps, and the First Company was mustered into state service on June 16, 1920, by Major David P. Hardy, Reserve Corps, United States Army. On January 20, 1921, Major Richard E. Mittelstaedt, Ordnance Department, California National Guard, mustered the Second Company, Coast Artillery Corps. Fifth Company was organized February 10, 1921; Sixth Company on March 1, 1921; Seventh Company on April 20, 1921; Eighth Company on April 20, 1921; Ninth Company on April 21, 1921; First Separate Company on August 1, 1924; Second Separate Company on August 1, 1924; and the Third Separate Company on August 1, 1924. The First Separate Machine Gun Company was organized September 1, 1924.

The 184th Infantry Regiment was organized July 1, 1924, with two battalions. The Headquarters Company of the regiment was a successor to the Sarsfield Grenadier Guard organized in Sacramento in July 29, 1870. Company E, Second Battalion, claimed one of the earliest histories and as the successor to the Union Cavalry, Buckeye, Yolo County, June 25, 1863. The regiment participated in the Folsom riot on November 24, 1927, the longshoremen's strike in San Francisco, July 5, 1934, and numerous ceremonies, drills, and parades.

The Headquarters, Seventy-ninth Brigade, Fortieth Division, California National Guard, was organized November 25, 1922, in Sacramento. The brigade consisted of the 159th and the 160th Regiments. The headquarters was relocated at Berkeley on March 16, 1925, and was again relocated in Los Angeies on October 16, 1926, where it remained until the brigade was redesignated the 80th Brigade on May 6, 1929. The 160th Infantry and the new 185th Infantry were assigned to the 80th Brigade. The new 79th Brigade received the 159th Regiment of Infantry and the 184th Infantry Regiment. The units participated in the San Francisco Emergency in 1934.

The 40th Tank Company. 40th Division, was organized at Salinas on June 18, 1924. The company participated in the Folsom riot incident on November 27, 1927. The 115th Quartermaster Regiment Headquarters was organized June 18, 1926, the Headquarters Company was formed on the same date. Two battalions were created with Company A and Company B in the First Battalion together with a Headquarters and a Headquarters Company. The Second Battalion was formed with Companies C and D, together with a Medical Detachment. The units transported the troops of the 40th Division to and from training areas.

The Coast Artillery began in April 18, 1901, when the Board of Location and Organization ordered Companies C, F, G, and K of the First Infantry Regiment to be detached and become the First Battalion of Coast Artillery. The first company of artillery to be organized was at San Francisco, and was designated First Company, Coast Artillery, on June 16, 1920. The Second Company was mustered January 20, 1921. On February 1, 1921, Companies C and D, First Separate Battalion Infantry, were redesignated Third and Fourth Companies of the Coast Artillery Corps. The four artillery companies were organized as the First Provisional Battalion Coast Artillery Corps, and on March 26, 1921, this unit was designated the First Coast Defense Command. The 250th Coast Artillery participated in the longshoremen's sts`ike in San Francisco on July 5, 1934.

The 251st Coast Artillery was organized November 1, 1924. On January 1, 1930, the unit was redesignated 251st Coast Artillery (Anti-Aircraft). From 1924 to 1936, the regiment consisted of six batteries, Headquarters Detachment, Combat Train, and Medical Detachment. The batteries were Headquarters Battery and Batteries A, B. C, D, and E. The Headquarters Battery was previously organized as Seventh Company, Coast Artillery Corps on April 20, 1921. It became the 465th Company on October 6, 1923, and then Battery G, 250th Coast Artillery. When the 251st was organized it was converted to Headquarters Battery. Battery A was formerly the San Diego City Guard on October 12, 1881. Battery B was formerly the Eight Company Coast Artillery Corps. Battery C was originally the Eighth Company at San Diego on April 20, 1921. Battery D was formerly the Twenty-third Company, organized October 6, 1916. Battery E was originally the Sixteenth Company, organized September 24, 1916. Battery F was formerly Battery D of the 251st Coast Artillery. The 251st Coast Artillery took part in the earthquake at Long Beach in 1933, in many ceremonies, and in drill and parades.

The 185th Infantry Regiment was organized April 1, 1929. at Fresno, California. Redesignations of units of the 184th Infantry Regiment were made to create some of the new units of the 185th Infantry Regiment.

Company C, 184th Infantry became Headquarters Company, 185th Regiment. Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, H of the 185th Infantry Regiment, were formerly Companies A, B, K, D. F, H respectively of the 184th Infantry Regiment. New units organized in the 185th Regiment were Headquarters, Howitzer Company, Companies E, G, F, C, M, Headquarters Company, Third Battalion. The regiment excelled in training and in marksmanship. It received national recognition in target practice, and participated in many ceremonies, drills, and parades.

The 40th Division Aviation, formerly the 40th Division Air Service, consisted of an Observation Squadron, mustered in June 16, 1924; the 115th Photo Section, mustered Mav 3, 1926; and a Medical Detachment, mustered May 3, 1926. Hangars and eight planes were supplied to the squadron by the Federal Government. On May 13, 1931, five planes took off from the Glendale National Airport for Dayton, Ohio, to attend the National Air Corps Maneuvers.

The 196th Field Artillery was an organization for only three months, and was then absorbed by the 144th Field Artillery. The unit consisted of a Headquarters, Second Battalion, Medical Detachment, Headquarters Battery and Combat Train, Battery C and C, Second Battalion. The 144th Field Artillery was organized April 16, 1936, with a Headquarters, Second Battalion, Headquarters Battery and Combat Train. The 115th Medical Regiment was organized April 27, 1936, with an Ambulance Company.

Headquarters Company, 80th Brigade, was mustered in May 6, 1929, and was formerly Headquarters Company, 79th Brigade. Headquarters of the brigade was organized at the same time in Los Angeles. The 160th Infantry Regiment was withdrawn from the 79th Brigade and attached to the 80th Brigade. The new 185th Regiment was likewise assigned to thi:-80th Brigade. The Headquarters of the 40th Division was organized September, 1917, demobilized in 1919, reorganized June 18, 1926, and restationed October 1, 1937. A Headquarters Company, Headquarters Detachment, Headquarters Special Troops, and Medical Detachment were included in the 40th Division. The State Staff of the Adjutant's Department was organized April 12, 1950.

The records are replete with important incidents of the employment of the militia and the National Guard. The troops were employed successfully in the railroad strike of 1894; in the Spanish-American War; in the Philip-pine Insurrection; in the earthquake and fire in San Francisco in 1906; in the McCloud River lumber strike of 1909; on the Mexican Border in 1916; in the Folscm Prison riot in 1927; during the Long Beach earthquake, March 10, 1933; during the strikes and emergency in San Francisco in 1934; in the Ocean Park fire; during the Mt. Tamalpais fire; in the Wheatland riots; in the Napa City fire; during the Sacramento riots and the suppression of "Kelley's Army": on the Mexican Border in 1914; during the St. Francis Dam disaster; in the North Sacramento Hoods; during the San Quentin fire and the Stockton emergency; during the Chico and Redlands disturbances: during Indian hostilities: in World War I and World War II; and in a host of minor disturbances. It would be difficult to imagine the course the State might have taken if troops had not been available during its periods of crisis and emergency.

By General Order Number 34, Headquarters of the California National Guard. Brigadier General R. E. Mittelstaedt, C.N.G., was granted a leave of absence in order to enter federal service as of March 2, 1941. On November 25, 1940. the 102d Radio Intelligence Company was inducted into federal service. On October 7, 1940, the State Detachment; on September 16, 1940, the 250th and 251st Coast Artillery: on February 3, 1941, the 144th Field Artillery; on February 10, 1941, Company C, 194th Tank Battalion; on March 3, 1941, the 143d Field Artillery; on March 3, 1941, all of the units of the 40th Division and the 115th Observation Squadron; and on April 1, 1941, the Headquarters Battery of the 76th Field Artillery Brigade were respectively inducted into federal service. Their record and history is to be made available to all by the Department of the Army, and is a record to be proudly preserved and recalled at intervals, that the sacrifices may never be forgotten.

Many citizens of the State of California have held office in the California National Guard or Militia and have otherwise distinguished them-selves and become public figures.
Upon the cessation of hostilities in World War II, the responsibility for the reorganization of the postwar California National Guard was vested in Major General Curtis D. O'Sullivan. the Adjutant General of the State of California. The California National Guard was reorganized as a federally supervised military force of volunteer citizen-soldiers with a dual federal-state status. To the Nation, it represents a balanced armed force of trained and equipped civilian volunteers, capable of instant mobilization in time of national peril, and ready to fight any place in the world. To the State of California, it provides a state force in peacetime which, under direction of the Governor, will serve for local security, and give relief in time of crisis and disaster. To the community, it furnishes the local opportunity for individual citizens to be trained for modern, effective preparedness while they live at home and follow their normal civilian pursuits.

The California National Guard, as reorganized, is authorized to receive pay and equipment from the Federal Government. It is fully organized and equipped in accordance with Army and Air Force Tables of Organization. The officers qualify under a strict age-in-grade policy prescribed by the National Guard Bureau. The personnel of the guard are required to meet physical and professional standards identical with those prescribed for the United States Army.

The California National .Guard is reorganized into divisions, wings. regiments, squadrons, and other units similar to the Regular Army. The Federal Government, through the National Guard Bureau, allocated to the State of California a total of 375 units of which 41 are California Air National Guard units. All of the air units have been organized and federally recognized. The 334 Army National Guard units have been reorganized and federally recognized, except 12 units which are allocated and in the process of organization. The units of the California National Guard have a total strength of 27,170 and constitute the Iargest Air National Guard and the second largest Army National Guard in the United States.
The California Legislature approved the armory construction program of the Adjutant General and, as a result, the prewar 12 state-owned armories have been increased to 74 armories now completed or in process of construction. Approximately $24,000,000 in federal funds will be paid to California citizen-soldiers in the year 1950. More than S268,000,000 in real property and equipment has been received from the Federal Government. The federal pay roll in California for over 400 caretakers, mechanics, and maintenance personnel now employed totals nearly $2,000,000. The State Budget of the California National Guard for 1950 is nearly $2,500,000.

The strength of the major organizations of the California National Guard as of 31 December 1949 is as follows:

State Headquarters
 Unit Officer Warrant Officers  Enlisted
 Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment 46 1 70
 Separate Detachment, California National Guard (See 1st Provisional Brigade) 10 2 16
 Total 56 3 86
 
40th Infantry Division
 Unit Officer Warrant Officers  Enlisted
 Headquarters, 40th Infantry Division and Division Troops 161 24 1,789
 40th Infantry Division Artillery 146 10 2,148
 160th Infantry Regiment 79 4 1,480
 223rd Infantry Regiment 92 3 2,048
 224th Infantry Regiment 91 4 2,174
 Total 569 45 9,639
 
49th Infantry Division
 Unit Officer Warrant Officers  Enlisted
 Headquarters, 49th Infantry Division and Division Troops 162 16 1,413
 49th Infantry Division Artillery 140 9 1,654
 159th Infantry Regiment 113 2 1,987
 184th Infantry Regiment 92 3 1,474
 224th Infantry Regiment 111 4 1,553
 Total 618 34 8,081
 
112th Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade
 Unit Officer Warrant Officers  Enlisted
 Headquarters, 112th Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade 11 1 81
233rd Antiaircraft Artillery Group 35 3 296
 250th Antiaircraft Artillery Group 60 4 930
 Total 106 8 1,307
 
114th Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade
 Unit Officer Warrant Officers  Enlisted
 Headquarters, 114th Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade 20 3 116
234th Antiaircraft Artillery Group 63 6 599
 250th Antiaircraft Artillery Group 65 7 586
 Total 148 16 1,501
 
1st Provisional Brigade
 Unit Officer Warrant Officers  Enlisted
6th Engineer Combat Group 41 5 603
59th Army Band 0 1 8
111th Armored Cavalry Regiment 50 2 471
 161st Ordnance Depot Company 2 1 50
 498th Ordnance Evacuation Company 4 0 45
 3632nd Ordnance Medium Maintenance Company 2 0 69
 3668th Ordnance Medium Maintenance Company 5 2 82
 Separate Detachment, California National Guard 10 2 16
 Total 114 2 1,344
 
Air National Guard
 Unit Officer Warrant Officers  Enlisted
61st Fighter Wing 200 4 1,184
62nd Fighter Wing 309 4 1,809
 Total 509 8 2,993

Posted 24 March 2009


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