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USS California, 1921
California's Ships
USS California (BB-44)

The fifth ship to bear the name CALIFORNIA (BB- 44) was launched 20 November 1919 by Mare Island Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. R. T. Zane; and commissioned 10 August 1921, Captain H. J. Ziegemeier in command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet as flagship.For 20 years from 1921 until 1941, CALIFORNIA served first as flagship of the Pacific Fleet, then as flagship of the Battle Fleet (Battle Force), U.S. Fleet. Her annual activities included joint Army-Navy exercises, tactical and organizational development problems, and fleet concentrations for various purposes. Intensive training and superior performance won her the Battle Efficiency Pennant for 1921-22, and the Gunnery "E" for 1925-26.In the summer of 1925 CALIFORNIA led the Battle Fleet and a division of cruisers from the Scouting Fleet on a very successful good-will cruise to Australia and New Zealand. She took part in the Presidential reviews of 1927, 1930, and 1934. She was modernized in late 1929 and early 1930 and equipped with an improved antiaircraft battery.


In 1940 CALIFORNIA switched her base to Pearl Harbor On 7 December 1941 she USS California Sinking at Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1944was moored at the southernmost berth of "Battleship Row" and was with other dreadnoughts of the Battle Force when the Japanese launched their aerial attack. As she was about to undergo a material inspection, watertight integrity was not at its maximum; consequently the ship suffered great damage when hit. At 0805 a bomb exploded below decks, setting off an antiaircraft ammunition magazine and killing about 50 men. A second bomb ruptured her bow plates. Despite valiant efforts to keep her afloat the inrushing water could not be isolated and CALIFORNIA settled into the mud with only her superstructure remaining above the surface. When the action ended, 98 of her crew were lost and 61 wounded. On 26 March 1942 CALIFORNIA was refloated and dry docked at Pearl Harbor for repairs. On 7 June she departed under her own power, for Puget Sound Navy yard where a major reconstruction job was accomplished, including improved protection, stability, AA battery, and fire control system.


CALIFORNIA departed Bremerton 31 January 1944 for shakedown at San Pedro, and sailed from San Francisco 5 May for the invasion of the Marianas. Off Saipan in June, she conducted effective shore bombardment and call fire missions. On 14 June she was hit by a shell from an enemy shore battery which killed one man and wounded nine. Following Saipan, her heavy guns helped blast the way for our assault force in the Guam and Tinian operations (18 July-9 August). On 24 August she arrived at Espiritu Santo for repairs to her port bow damaged in a collision with her sister ship, the USS TENNESSEE (BB-43).


On 17 September 1944 CALIFORNIA sailed to Manus to ready for the invasion of the Philippines. From 17 October to 20 November she played a key role in the Leyte operation, including the destruction of the Japanese fleet in the Battle of Surigao Strait (25 October). On 1 January 1945 she departed the Palaus for the Luzon landings. Her powerful batteries were an important factor in the success of these dangerous operations driven home into the heart of enemy-held territory under heavy air attack. On 6 January while providing shore bombardment at Lingayen Gulf she was hit by a kamikaze plane; 44 of her crew were killed and 155 were wounded. Undeterred she made temporary repairs on the spot and remained carrying out her critical mission of shore bombardment until the job was done. She departed 23 January for Puget Sound Navy Yard, arriving 15 February, for permanent repairs.


CALIFORNIA returned to action at Okinawa 15 June 1945 and remained in that embattled area until 21 July. Two days later she joined TF 95 to cover the East China Sea minesweeping operations. After a short voyage to San Pedro Bay, P.I., in August, the ship departed Okinawa 20 September to cover the landing of the 6th Army occupation force at Wakanoura Wan, Honshu. She remained supporting the occupation until 15 October, then sailed via Singapore, Colombo, and Capetown, to Philadelphia, arriving 7 December. She was placed in commission in reserve there 7 August 1946: out of commission in reserve 14 February 1947; and sold 10 July 1959. She was scrapped later that same year.

CALIFORNIA received seven battle stars for World War II service. Today, the ship's bell rests in a memorial in Capital Park in Sacramento. A fitting tribute to a fine ship and her crew

USS California, 1944

Dimensions

 Length(overall)  624' 6"
 Length(waterline)  600'
 Beam
 97.6'(design)
114'(1943)
 Draft(max)  35' 5"
 Draft(mean)  30' 5"

Displacement

 Maximum
 36,455 tons
40,950 tons (1943)
 Full Load  33,190 tons
 Design  32,300 tons

Propulsion

 Boilers  8 Babcock & Wilcox 3 drum express type fitted with 2 furnaces and double uptakes
 Turbines  2 sets GE geared turbines w/ electric drive
 Horsepower  28,600 (design)
26,800 (actual)
30,908 (1943)
 Shafts  4
 Speed  21.01 knts
20.06 knts (1943)
 Endurance  20,500 NM @ 10 knts
9,700 NM @ 12 knts
5,240 NM @ 18 knts
2,500 NM @ 20 knts

Protection

 Main Side Belt  13.5" side vertical
 Lower Side Belt  8"
 Deck
 Main 3.2"--2nd 2.5"
5"-7" (1943)
 Barbettes  13"
 Turrets
 face 18";
sides 10"
back 9"
roof 5"
roof 7"-7.25" (1943)
 Conning Tower  16" sides

Armament

 Main guns
12 x 14"/50 cal (Mk 11) in 4 triple turrets
2 forward 2 aft
  Secondary
 10 x 5"/51 cal mounted in sponsons in the hull
16 x 5"/38 cal in 8 twin turrets (1945)
  Heavy A/A
 4 x 3"/50 cal removed
56 x 40mm Bofors in fourteen quad mounts
  Light A/A
 6 x 50 cal HMG
80 x 20mm Oerlikons
 Torpedoes   2 x 21"

Complement

 Design  1,500
 1945  2,200+

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