The corps was organized after the disbandment of the First Calaveras Guard, for the purpose of protecting the citizens of Calaveras and community from violent.acts of a large foreign population; and also to render aid to the civil authorities in collecting County and State revenue. The Chileans were particularly numerous in that section of the country and murders and robbery were common occurrences. In February 1853 prior to the organization of the company, Captain Lewis sent a hurried appeal to General Kibbe for arms.
Under date of November 16, 1854, Captain Lewis informed General Kibbe by letter of a shortage in the recently received arms and accoutrements, and wished to have the remaining items forwarded as quickly as possible. However, in 1856 these arms were returned to Sacramento when trouble arose between the State authorities and the vigilance committees. After the unit's arms were retrieved by the State and as the foreign element had become peaceful, it is assumed members of the company lost interest in there military organization which was no longer necessary for protection. Therefore, the Jesus Maria Guard was disbanded and while there is no official mustering out date, this action occurred during the year 1857.