Historic California Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields
Fort Cronkhite
(Naval Harbor Defense Unit)
 
Fort Cronkhite
by Sgt. Maj. (CA) Dan Sebby, Military Historian, California Military Dpeartment
 
Fort Cronkhite was acquired on 5 April 1937 when the U.S. Army filed a Declaration of Taking against the Marin Land and Cattle Co (Civil Case 20250) in the Southern Division of the U.S. District Court in and for the Northern District of California. The Site was the northernmost of series of coastal fortifications that stretched south to Milagra Ridge in San Mateo County. These forts were collectively known as the Harbor Defenses of San Francisco and were sub-installations of Fort Winfield Scott.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) records on file at the National Archives (NARA) in San Bruno show that beginning in the mid-1930s, the U.S. Army began deploying a new generation of 16-inch rifles. These guns were placed in two-gun batteries located at Forts Cronkite, Barry, and Funston; and at the Milagra Ridge Military Reservation. These batteries, with their extended fields of fire that almost reached the Farallon Islands, rendered all the existing 8-, 10-, and 12-inch batteries obsolete. These batteries were also "casemated" or covered with a protective concrete and earth roof. Construction of the battery at Fort Cronkhite, Battery Townsley, began in March 1938 and was completed in July 1940. USACE records at NARA show that the battery was completely self-sufficient with its own electrical power plant and water supply. Battery Townsley also a very large reserve magazine for the storage of 16-inch projectiles and powder bags.

To protect Battery Townsley from air attack, a battery of three 3-inch M1917 antiaircraft guns was emplaced on Wolf Ridge. This battery became operational 26 October 1940 and had its own electrical powerhouse and magazine. A 19 November 1948 map titled, Military Reservation, Fort Cronkhite, also placed an additional four M-1 40mm mobile antiaircraft guns and four M-51 "quad-50" trailer-mounted .50 caliber antiaircraft guns at the Site. The same map also shows that two radar sets were installed to detect aircraft and direct fire. A third radar set was installed to provide target acquisition data to Battery Townsley's fire control system.
 
When not manning the guns, soldiers lived and worked in standard U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps designed 700-series, wood framed buildings. A 30 June 1941 report titled, Record of Equipment and Condition of Buildings, showed that the Site could house 70 officers, 79 noncommissioned officers, and 1,545 enlisted soldiers. In addition to a battalion of the 6th Coast Artillery Regiment (Harbor Defense) which was responsible for Battery Townsley and other fixed coastal defenses, there was a battalion of the 56th Coast Artillery Regiment armed with 155mm towed coast artillery guns (Chappell 1981).

Also on the Site were fire control stations for other batteries within the Harbor Defenses of San Francisco. These were fortified bunkers and had dedicated electrical power generators. These stations provided fire control data to the following batteries:
 
 
The Record of Equipment and Condition of Buildings indicated that general electrical power for the cantonment area was supplied by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, while tactical structures, such as fire control stations and radar sites, had their own electrical generators. In 1941, there were 14 transformers at the Site. During World War II, the nearest electrical substation was located at Fort Barry. Documentation indicated the use of fuel oils as the primary source for heating and cooking.

The site also used an incinerator for the disposal of garbage. Documentation concerning how long the incinerator was used was not found during the research process. However the structure was shown on installation maps as late as 1966.

As the threat to the Pacific Coast declined, other uses for the Site were found. During 1944, the Western Defense Command operated a "Commando Combat School" on the Site (Chappell 1981). In the History of the California State Guard, published by the California National Guard in 1946, the school was shown as a mock village in which tactical problems were conducted.
With the end of the war and the ascendancy of atomic weapons, coastal fortifications were made irrelevant. The antiaircraft guns were immediately withdrawn and in 1948, Battery Townsley's guns were cut up for scrap. With this disarming of the battery, the Site became an inactive installation under the control of the Presidio of San Francisco. As an inactive installation, the garrison was kept to a minimum to maintain the facilities in the event of emergency or to provide additional housing for any surges in Presidio of San Francisco's troop strength caused by training or other operational requirements (Chappell 1981).

The Site remained in an inactive status until 1955 when The U.S. Army began building air defense missile installations on Fort Cronkhite. Nike facilities at the Site were actually two separate activities.

On Fort Cronkhite's Wolf Ridge was the Control Area for Fort Barry's San Francisco Defense Area Site 88 (SF-88). This area was known as SF-88C. SF-88C was located north of the Launcher Area (SF-88L) and allowed for 360-degree "line-of-site" radar coverage by the Site's tracking and search radar systems. The missile tracking radar would "lock-on" to the missiles as they sat on the launcher and follow them from launch to impact with the target. The Control Area was located away from the Launcher Area because the high speed of the Nike missiles would have destroyed the mechanisms of the missile tracking radar (Morgan and Berhow 2002).

Conversely, San Francisco Defense Area Site 87's Administrative and Launcher Areas were located in the cantonment area of Fort Cronkhite while its Control Area (SF-87C) was located to the east, atop Fort Barry's Red Hawk Hill. The history of those portions physically on Fort Barry will be reported on in the Records Research Report for Fort Barry (Morgan and Berhow 2002).
The Administrative Area (SF-87A) contained the Site's administrative and support functions. This included troop housing and messing, recreational facilities, battery administration, supply buildings, and vehicle maintenance facilities. World War II-era buildings were used until the 1965 when more modern facilities were built. The new buildings were of a standard concrete block construction and were heated by fuel oil (Morgan and Berhow 2002).

The Launcher Area (SF-87L) was located adjacent to and north of the Administrative Area and consisted of eight launchers and two magazines (underground storage "bunkers") that held a total of 20 MIM-3 Nike-Ajax multi-stage, surface-to-air missiles. The Nike-Ajax missile (Figure 3 2) required facilities for the fuelling of the Ajax (second-stage) portion of the missile. The liquid fuel used for the Ajax was a combination of hydrazine and red fuming nitric acid. The Nike portion (booster or first-stage) used a solid fuel. The magazines were modified from May 1958 until June 1959 to hold 12 of the larger MIM-14 Nike-Hercules missiles. The Nike-Hercules missile used a solid fuel for both stages. Additionally, the Launcher Area also consisted of missile and warhead assembly, crew readiness, and security buildings. (Morgan and Berhow 2002).

In June of 1971, SF-87 was disarmed and deactivated and its facilities transferred to the Presidio of San Francisco's Post Engineer. This was followed by the deactivation of SF-88 in March 1974.

While the U.S. Army was operating the Nike air defense missile program, it was disposing of large portions of the Site to other government agencies. These tracts of land were the northwestern portion of the Site.

On 7 September 1956, the Secretary of the Army transferred 192.19 acres to the U.S. Navy for the Naval Harbor Defense Unit. The activities of this unit on this parcel of land have not been determined during the course of research.

On 1 February 1961, the U.S. Army quitclaimed 146.27 acres to the State of California. This land was for the proposed Tennessee Valley Unit, Marin Headlands State Park.

The Secretary of the Army transferred 219 acres to the U.S. Coast Guard on 1 August 1963. This was used to establish a U.S. Coast Guard communications station.

On 20 May 1964, The U.S. Navy quitclaimed an additional 31.911 acres to the State of California. This land was added to the proposed Marin Headlands State Park.

On 29 September 1972, President Richard Nixon signed the Golden Gate National Recreation (GGNRA) Act in which all Federal lands within the boundaries of the Site were transferred to the National Park Service (NPS). However, the U.S. Army continued to operate its portion of the Site as a sub-installation of the Presidio of San Francisco under a Memorandum of Understanding with the NPS.

On 10 September 1974, Fort Cronkhite was discontinued as a U.S. Army installation and all controls were transferred to the NPS. This was confirmed by Department of the Army General Order 25, dated 16 December 1975.
 

History
by Justin M Ruhge

Fort Cronkhite was formed around the Army's 1915 plans to construct two 16-inch gun batteries in the Bay Area. In 1928, the Adjutant General of the Army announced that there would be two batteries of 16-inch guns, one on either side of the Golden Gate. It was not until the 1937 appropriation that Congress approved expenditure of funds for the purchase of land at Tennessee Point on which to build the immense 16-inch battery to be similar to Battery Davis at Fort Funston. The appropriation, "Seacoast Defenses, United States, 1937," approved the expenditure of $318, 500 for the purpose of purchasing 800 acres of land to the north of Rodeo Lagoon. This tract included Tennessee Point where the Army already owned 5.5 acres for its searchlight installations, Wolf Ridge, Tennessee Valley, and the headlands further north.
 
Fort Cronkhite was the newest and the last of the military reservations to be founded in the Bay Area. In addition to the battery, an antiaircraft battery, fire-control stations and in 1941, three batteries of mobile 155-mm guns were emplaced there. In the spring of 1941, a cantonment of World War II wood frame "temporary" barracks, mess halls, kitchens, and orderly rooms were rushed to completion. Eventually, 43 buildings were constructed. Battery E of the 6th Coast Artillery established the first garrison on June 20, 1941. Despite these tidy quarters, the men who manned the 16-inch battery lived within the concrete walls so that the guns could be ready to fire on fifteen minutes notice.
 
Fort Cronkhite was named in General Orders 9, December 17, 1937 in honor of deceased Major General Adelbert Cronkhite who had commanded the 80th Division during World War I.
 
In January 1944, Fort Cronkhite became a Commando Combat School, which it retained until December 1944.
 
In 1955, Nike missile battery 87 was constructed. It served until 1965.
 
In 2004, Fort Cronkhite is a part of the National Parks Service Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

Batteries at Fort Cronkhite

Name

No. of Guns

Model of Gun

Model of Carriage

 Date Started

Completed

Decommissioned

Townsley

2

16 inch MarkIIMI

 Casemated Long Range Barbette M1919M5

 1937

 1940

1948
Anti-Aircraft No. 1

 3

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedestal

1941

1941

?
 
Fire Control
 

Battery Townsley's fire control system was designed to be similar to Battery Davis. A BC station was sited near the battery. The five observation and spotting stations were situated as follows: B1S1 on Wolf Ridge, elevation 700 feet; B2S2 at Fort Funston, elevation 200 feet; B3S3 on high ground north of Gull Rock, Bolinas Bay on the Hill 640 Military Reservation, elevation 300 feet; B4S4 at Fort Miley, elevation 300 feet; and B5S5 on the Frank Valley Military Reservation, elevation 480 feet; B6S6 on Hill 640 military Reservation; B7S7 on Wildcat Military Reservation in the Bear Valley area of Point Reyes National Seashore. With these stations, seven baselines ranging from 4,200 yards to 15,300 yards could be laid out.
 
On Hill 640 was placed a Radar set SCR-296, which was used during World War II for antiaircraft fire control and then to direct the guns of Battery Townsley.
 
The ordnance instruments to be employed in a typical fire control station were an azimuth instrument M1910 and a Lewis depression position finder M-1-5. The cost of both was $6,300. To build the station the engineers needed $900 for materials and $350 for labor. Signal equipment consisted of three or more wall telephones with headsets and one small time interval bell. The total cost of a typical station came to $8,869.
 
Report of Completed Works - Seacoast Fortifications: Base End Stations
 
 
Searchlight Stations
 
With the establishment of Fort Cronkhite, control of Serchlight Positions Nos. 16 and 17 were transferred from Fort Barry to that post.
 
Report of Completed Works - Seacoast Fortifications: Seacoast Searchlights Positions Nos. 16 and 17.
 
Searchlight No. 16, 1913. Mounted on an elevator platform so the light could be stored underground when not In use. Located on the Tennessee Point Military Reservation. Army Presidio Museum Archives, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, San Francisco.
 
 
 
 
Cantonment Area
 
The cantonment at Fort Cronkhite, with its ubiquitous World War II type barracks, was rushed to completion during the spring and early summer of 1941. A photograph taken July 24, 1941 shows the nearly completed project and platoon of soldiers marching on the Parade Grounds - possibly Battery E, 6th California Artillery, which had officially established the garrison only four days earlier. Despite the rows of tidy quarters, the 150 men who manned the great guns of Battery Townsley found themselves from 1941 on living within the concrete walls of the battery itself rather than down on the shore of the Rodeo Lagoon. They were still occupying the gloomy corridors a year later when a plea was made for adequate bathing facilities for them at the battery. It took fifteen minutes one-way by truck to get down to the barracks to use the showers there. Because the guns of Battery Townsley were required to be ready for action within fifteen minutes or less, approval was given for the installations of showers.
 
The men manning the antiaircraft guns also had to live up on Wolf Ridge. The personnel shelters, the mess hall, and the battery offices were built underground. Because of the sparse vegetation of the ridge, camouflage procedures were extensive. Even aboveground passageways between the guns and the other structures were covered with simulated rocks. This "rock" consisted of a framework of wood and chicken wire, covered with burlap, and plastered with a mixture of casting plaster, cement and sawdust or sisal. Coloring matter was added to the mixture, but the experimenters found they could get a more satisfactory effect by spraying the finished rock with color. Much of this camouflage was fragile in nature, but remnants of it could yet be found on Wolf Ridge in 1979.
 
By 1944 the war had receded to the western Pacific and the threat of a Japanese Naval attack on the west coast had all but disappeared. Fort Cronkhite's mission now included the function of a Commando Combat School, the first of its kind in the Western Defense Command, began on January 4, 1944. The school trained officer instructors in commando tactics and in combat training for smaller units. Eight weeks were spent with instructions in judo, war aquatics, physical training, hand and shoulder weapons, scouting, chemical warfare, stream crossing, map reading, infiltration tactics, demolitions, booby traps, camouflage, jungle living, street and village fighting and communications. The school lasted less than a year. It was closed in December 1944.
 
Greater emphasis was placed on antiaircraft defense and training beginning in 1944. Special schools were set up to give personnel intensive day-to-day training in tracking and shooting down aircraft targets with many different types of guns at several locations along the California Coast as well as at Fort Cronkhite. .
 
Radar increased the effectiveness of the 16-inch and antiaircraft guns. However, the need for the great coastal defense guns lessened with the elimination of most enemy battleships during the war, the original reason for the coast defense forts. The new amphibious landing techniques and equipment developed during the war years also rendered harbors less necessary for troop landing purposes. An occupying force could now be landed on almost any beach anywhere with air cover support. Frontal assaults on harbors were no longer necessary.
 
The Fort assumed a new function in the late 1950s and early 1960s when it became the home of Nike missile installations. In 1955 a Nike Radar control center SF88C was constructed on top of Wolf Ridge at an elevation of over 800 feet. This complex served as the control center for the Nike battery at Fort Barry. Of the several elements remaining today, two radar control towers are considered to possess historical significance.
 
To the north of the cantonment area, a Nike launch area SF-87L was constructed. Presently adapted in part for use as a maintenance area, this Nike complex is also considered to possess a local level of historical significance.
 
The eastern half of the 1941 cantonment was largely remodeled to house the Nike personnel. The western portion retains its character as a World War II Army post. This style of military architecture is quickly fading from the scene as these wooden structures are removed and often replaced with brick and mortar buildings on active Army bases.
 
 
Undated site map prior to establishment of San Francisco Defense Area Sites 87 and 88. (National Archives and Records Administration) Click image for a higher definition view.
 
Troop Assignments
 
The garrison was officially established by Battery E of the 6th Coast Artillery June 20th, 1941.
 
The Fort Record Book states that the 56th Coast Artillery Regiment was activated and assembled at Fort Cronkhite in July 1941. The Historical Record of the Western Defense Command places Headquarters and Headquarters Company of the 56th Coast Artillery at the post from May 1, 1942 to February 1943. Other units were stationed for various lengths of time during the war. Battery B, 173rd Coast Artillery Battalion was disbanded on September 15, 1945.
 
In 1952, Battery C, 9th AAA Gun Battalion was located at Fort Cronkhite along with Batteries A, C and D, 459th AAA AW Branch, Headquarters Battery AAA AW Branch, Headquarters and C Batteries, 718 AAA Gun Battalion, and 93rd AA Gun Battalion. In the late 1950s the Nike AAA missile battalions replaced these. A complete listing of the known units stationed at Fort Cronkhite is given in Historic Resource Study Forts Baker, Barry Cronkhite of Golden Gate National Recreation Area California, pgs. 120-124, by Erwin N. Thompson, 1979, National Park Service.
 
 
References: A History of San Francisco Harbor Defense Installations: Forts Baker, Barry, Cronkhite, and Funston by Emanuel Raymond Lewis, 1965, Prepared for Division of Beaches and Parks State of California; Historic Resource Study Forts Baker, Barry and Cronkhite, by Erwin N. Thompson, 1979, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California; Seacoast Fortifications San Francisco Harbor by Erwin N. Thompson, 1979, Golden Gate National Recreation Area; Fort Cronkhite, California, and Battery Townsley by Gordon Chappell, 1981, National Parks Service; Artillery At The Golden Gate by Brian B. Chin, 1994.
 
 
Fort Cronkhite
by Gordon Chappell, Regional Historian, Pacific West Region, National Park Service

Fort Cronkhite in Marin County was the newest and last of the many military reservations which defended the Golden Gate and San Francisco Bay with their heavy guns, and it represented the ultimate outer ring of coast-artillery defense, for it was to be the site of one of two two-gun batteries of sixteen inch guns in the defenses of San Francisco, and these were the largest guns used by the United States.

Installation of the mighty 16-inch guns in the defenses of San Francisco became a matter of serious discussion as early as 1915, although planning at first was oriented toward siting the guns at Fort Funston, southwest of San Francisco and south of the Golden Gate. In 1928, however, the Adjutant General of the Army announced that there would be two batteries of 16-inch guns, one on either side of the Golden Gate. These guns had a range of roughly 26 miles, a far cry from the two and a half mile range of the guns of the 1850s, which could barely control the narrowest part of the Golden Gate Strait between Fort Point and Lime Point. These large modern guns could instead keep an enemy fleet far out at sea, hopefully far enough so that enemy guns would not be in range of the city and the harbor.

But the guns were not built for many years. It was not until the 1937 appropriation that Congress approved expenditure of funds for the purchase of land at Tennessee Point on which to build the-immense battery. The army acquired about 800 acres north of Rodeo Lagoon and northwest of Fort Barry by condemnation in 1937, the deed being recorded on June 21.

In March 1938 excavation on Wolf Ridge for the new firing platforms began. In a secret letter dated December 31, 1937, the new battery was named for Major General Clarence P. Townsley, who had commanded the 30th Infantry Division in France in World War I and who had died in 1928. Fort Cronkhite itself had been named only a couple of weeks earlier, on December 17, 1938, for the recently deceased Major General Adelbert Cronkhite, who had commanded the 80th Division during World War 1.

Battery Townsley and its reserve magazine both were completed and transferred to the Coast Artillery Corps in July 1940. On July 1, the first 16-inch round ever fired from the Pacific Coast of the continental United States was fired here.

In addition to Battery Townsley, an antiaircraft battery designated AA Battery No. I consisting of three 3-inch guns was completed on Wolf Ridge above Battery Townsley on August 26, 1940. In July 1941, three batteries of mobile 155 mm. guns were similarly emplaced, and over a period of years five fire control stations were built on Wolf Ridge.

The cantonment of World War II-type wood frame "temporary" barracks, mess halls and kitchens, orderly rooms, and other structures at Fort Cronkhite was actually built there before America entered World War II; its buildings were rushed to completion during the spring and early summer of 1941, and Battery E of the 6th Coast Artillery established the first garrison on June 20, 1941, while finishing touches were still being put on the barracks. America entered the war, of course, on December 7. 1941, when the Japanese attacked the naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

Despite the tidy quarters, the men who manned Battery Townsley far above on the point lived within the concrete walls of the battery, for the guns of Battery Townsley had to be ready for action in fifteen minutes or less in time of war.

By 1944 the threat of Japanese attack had receded into the Western Pacific, and Fort Cronkhite took on a new mission as a Commando Combat School, the first in the Western Defense Command, which began operation on January 4, 1944. It was discontinued in December 1944.

Fort Cronkhite remained important in post-World War II years. Radar fire control increased the accuracy of Battery Townsley guns, until nuclear weapons and missiles rendered them obsolete around 1948. In 1955, Nike missile battery 88 was constructed at Fort Cronkhite. The radar control site, 88C, was on the top of Wolf Ridge to the north, while launching site 88L was northeast of the World War II cantonment near the base of the ridge, and administrative site 89A consisted of concrete block buildings replacing some of the temporary frame structures in the eastern half of the World War II "temporary" complex.

Today the western half of the Fort Cronkhite cantonment has been identified by the National Park Service as a historic complex to be preserved as representative of World War II "temporary" barracks and other structures once so common across the nation, but now fast disappearing.

Originally Published in 1981 for the annual meeting of the Council on Abandoned Military Posts. Reprinted with permission of the author

Postscript

Since the above article was written in in 1981, very little changed at Fort Cronkhite. The National Park Service and its partners have maintained the military appearance of the post and have proved to be good stewards of this historic installation.

 
Fort Cronkhite's Radar Systems
 
Report of Completed Works - Seacoast Fortifications: Seacoast Radar
Radar Coverage Maps

SCR-296 Fixed Coast Artillery Gun-Laying Medium Wave Radar Set No. 4

 

Description: Fixed Coast Artillery gun-laying medium wave radar, assigned to modern 6 inch or larger batteries.

Uses: Set is designed to track a surface target in range and azimuth. Data are sent to the plotting room and used in firing. An SCR-296-A normally is assigned to one battery, but may furnish data to more. Works with IFF RC-136-A.

Performance & Sitting: Range is shown on "A" scope. The target is tracked in azimuth with a pip matching oscilloscope or a zero-center meter. Range accuracy is about ± 30 yards while azimuth accuracy is about ± 0.20 degree under the best conditions. The set has a dependable range of 20,000 yards on a destroyer size target when employed at a height of 145 feet. Site should be not less than 100 feet above sea level; 150 to 500 feet is recommended.

Mobility: Shipment includes areas and separate generator. When crated the total weight is 91,763 lbs. Largest unit is 5,270 lbs.

Installation: SCR-296-A includes a tower, an operating building, and two power plant buildings. The tower is obtainable in heights of 25, 50, 75, and 100 feet. Concrete floors must be put in locally.

Personnel: Operating crew consists of 5 men in addition to a power plant operator and maintenance man who should be available at all times.

Power: Primary power of 2.3 KW is supplied by PE-84C -- commercial or auxiliary 110 V, AC single phase. Generator needs high octane gasoline.

For more information on the SCR-296 radar set CLICK HERE
 
 
SCR-682 Transportable Microwave Seacoast Artillery Set No. 2
 
 
Description: Transportable Seacoast Artillery microwave radar.
 
Uses: Used by 155-mm and 8-inch railway battalions. PPI gives indication of surface craft and low-flying planes. Uses IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) RC-282.
 
Performance and Siting: Set covers 360°. For a height of 100 feet, range will average 50,000 yards or greater. At times, under favorable conditions, very much greater maximum ranges will be achieved from sufficient heights of site. Minimum range is about 500 yards. Azimuth accuracy is on the order of ± 2 degrees depending somewhat on the range scale in use. The range accuracy thus may be considered ± 3 per cent of the range scale in use. The range scales are 10,000; 4,000p; 160,000; and 320,000 yards. Set should be sited not less than thirty feet above the surrounding terrain and preferably at least 100 feet above sea level. The optimum height of site is between 150 and 500 feet.
 
Transportability: A transportable version of the SCR-582, the SCR-682 can be carried in two standard 2-1/2-ton 6x6 cargo trucks.
 
Installation: Set normally is operated form a portable tower furnished with set. The operating components are located near the tower in a Shelter HO-17 or housing constructed by the using troops from materials obtained locally. No transportation is furnished with the set.
 
Personnel: One man operates the set and another plots the position of detected targets. These men relieve one another every thirty minutes to reduce fatigue. For 24-hour operation a chief of section, five operators, two power plant operators, and one maintenance man are required.
 
Power: Requires about 1.28 KW, 120 V, 60 cycles, single phase.
 
Information from Naval History Library Online.
 
 
World War II Tactical Map
 
Tactical map of Fort Cronkite circa 1945 (Coast Defense Study Group). Click image for a higher resolution view.
 
 

Units Posted at Fort Cronkhite

US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1937-1941 Caretaker Detachment, 6th Coast Artillery Regiment

 
Fort Cronkhite Circa October 2000
 
 
 
Available from Amazon
 
 
Other Online or Printed Histories
 
Harbor Defenses of San Francisco - A Field Guide 1890 to 1950
Historical Resource Study, Forts Baker, Barry and Cronkhite
Historic Furnishings Report, Fort Cronkhite
Quartermaster Building Book, Fort Cronkhite
National Park Service
FortWiki
Wikipedia
What We Have We Will Defend: An Interim History and Preservation Plan for Nike Site SF-88L, Fort Barry, CA: Volume 1 Volume 2
Historic Resource Study, Seacoast Fortifications, San Francisco Harbor, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California
Forts of San Francisco
A Personal Account of the Coast Artillery in the Harbor Defenses of San Francisco during World War Two
The 16-inch Batteries at San Francisco and the Evolution of the Casemated 16-inch Battery
Gun Batteries of San Francisco
Seacoast Fortifications Preservation Manual: Golden Gate National Recreation Area
San Francisco Defense Guns in World War II

 

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Updated 8 February 2016