California State Military Department
The California State Military Museum
Preserving California's Military Heritage
Historic California Posts
Harbor Defenses of San Francisco
by Mark J. Berhow
Coast Defense Study Group
 
Map courtesy of Brian Chin
 
 
San Francisco harbor defenses are the most numerous and varied on the Pacific coast, and most importantly, they are generally accessible to the public. Legislation enacted in 1972 transferred the lands declared excess by the military to the National Park Service. Most of these lands are in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA). The GGNRA has a wide variety of facilities and activities. Except for some isolated fire control locations, almost all of San Franciscoís defenses are on public land today. Since San Francisco Bay was considered one of the most vital ports by the Army, the collection of defense works built there are possibly the most numerous and varied of any in the United States. the GGNRA is the one place to visit to see an example of almost every type of coastal defense built by the United States during the years 1850 to 1970.

Four major visitorís centers are located at Lands End, Fort Mason, Fort Point and the Marin Headlands at Fort Barry. In addition there are strong nature and historical interpretation programs, hundreds of miles of hiking and biking trails, and a wide range of cultural events, activities and centers on the lands that once were military property. The transfer of the Presidio of San Francisco from the Army to the National Park Service in 1995 has given this park natural, historical and cultural resources unexcelled by any other urban park in the nation. The wilderness setting so close to the urbanized areas of the city really makes the park an exciting place to visit and seem a world apart from the city.

For more information contact:

The Golden Gate National Recreation Area
Building 201
Fort Mason
San Francisco, VA 94123-1399
 
The Presidio of San Francisco

Presidio of San Francisco: There are several accesses to the Presidio/Fort Winfield Scott area, including the Main Gate at the end of Lombard Street and off of US 101 at Lincoln Boulevard

Originally established as a Spanish garrison in 1776, the San Francisco Presidio has been in continuous use as a military post. The area has been used by the U.S. Army for many activities; it was the home of the commander of the Department of the Pacific (and/or California) and the staging point for the Army's personnel for all it's activities on the Pacific Coast until well past WWII. During the latter part of the 20th Century, it was the Headquarters for the U.S. 6th Army and the center for the Army's activities in the San Francisco area.
In 1991 Congress decided to close the post and most of the property was transferred to National Park Service. There are a large number of historic buildings which can be seen. The Presidio Officers Club contains some of the adobe walls of the original Spanish construction. In the square in front of the Officers Club are some of the Spanish cannons which were in the old Castillio. The old post hospital building houses the Presidio Army Museum, which has an excellent collection of displays to interpret the historic role of the Army at San Francisco. A National Cemetery contains the final resting place of many service men who served in American Wars from 1846 onwards.
 
Fort Winfield Scott

Golden Gate National Recreational Area: Fort Point National Historic Site: Exit US 101 on Lincoln Blvd, west to the gun batteries along the bluffs above the ocean or east to the Fort Scott parade ground. Follow signs down Long Avenue to old Fort Point.

Fort Point was the site on the southern side of the entrance to San Francisico Bay where the Spanish gun battery was located in 1791. This site was subsequently destroyed for the construction of the first American defenses in the mid-1850s the American Fort Point, an imposing brick structure built to guard the Golden Gate. Designed to hold 127 guns, it probably never had that number mounted after it was armed in 1861. By 1865 the fortress had been rendered obsolete by the technical advances in weaponry developed during the Civil War. Newer defenses were built on either side of the old fort, and on the bluffs on the Marin Headlands in 1870. In 1882 the old brick fort was named Fort Winfield Scott (in honor of the hero of the Mexican War and General of the Army, Winfield Scott), and in 1912 the lands of the Presidio were divided in half, the western portion becoming Fort Winfield Scott and home of the Headquarters of the Harbor Defenses of San Francisco and command post for all the Pacific Coast Harbor Defense commands, the Ninth Coast Artillery District.

The old brick fort, now spanned by the Golden Gate Bridge, was designated a National Historic site in 1972 and is the only example of pre-Civil War defensive works west of the Rockies. Most of the reserve is now a part of the GGNRA. The bluffs along the western edge of Fort Scott contain a number of modern era coastal defense works. In 1976 a 6" rifled gun mounted in a disappearing carriage, was reinstalled in Battery Chamberlin at Baker Beach. This is one of the very few examples of American seacoast artillery in existence today. The battery is open to the public on the weekends. Fort Point is open almost everyday and contains several muzzle-loading cannons and many fine displays on the Civil War era.


Fort Mason

Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Franklin and Bay Streets, San Francisco

The bluffs above Blacks Point were first armed by Mexico in the 1820s. A gun battery was built by the Army in 1863 and was recently restored by the National Park Service. The post was named in 1888 for the first military governor of California, Colonel Richard Barnes Mason. During the 20th Century the post served as the Army's embarkation port to send supplies and men overseas. Today the buildings of Fort Mason support the administrative offices of the GGNRA and the old port buildings are used by many organizations for public activities and events because of its close proximity to downtown San Francisco.
 
Fort Miley


Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Vista Point parking lot at the corner of 48th Ave., and Seal Rock Drive in Lands End. Visitor Center is at Lands End, 1/4 mile further west.

Lands End has always been a popular recreation area for the citizens of San Francisco. The Army acquired title to the area in 1890 to build harbor defenses. The post was named after Lt. Col. John D. Miley who died in the Philippine Islands. Manned until the 1950s these guns, along with all the remaining seacoast artillery around the bay, were cut up for scrap. The area where the buildings were located has been turned over to the Veterans Administration, and a hospital is located here today. The old gun platforms and the rugged coastline is part of GGNRA.
 
Fort Funston

Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Exit from Skyline Boulevard, southbound, in the SW corner of San Francisco.

The dune area around Lake Merced was acquired during WW I as an area for the anticipated land defense of San Francisco. The post was named after Major General Fredrick Funston, a hero of Philippine Insurrection who, as commander of the Presidio in 1906, played an important role in helping the citizens of San Francisco during the quake. Temporary gun batteries were constructed there in 1917. The construction of Battery Davis in 1937 made this area an important part of the defenses of San Francisco. A Nike launch site was located here during the 1950s and 60s. Today, Fort Funston is a part of the GGNRA it is a haven for bicyclists, hikers, hang gliders and those who enjoy the beach.
 
Milagra Ridge Military Reservation

Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Access road from Sharppark Road in Pacifica

Now a part of the GGNRA, Milagra Ridge was the southern-most coastal defense work built to defend the entrance to San Francisco Bay. A 6" gun emplacement was built here during WW II. A 16" gun emplacement similar to one at Fort Funston was to be built but it was cancelled. Later, the area was used as a launch site for a Nike missile battery. The deserted Battery 243, several fire control stations and the buried Nike bunkers remain at this undeveloped park.
 
Alcatraz Island

Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Access by ferry from Fisherman's Wharf in San Francisco.

Before it became one of America's more notorious prisons, Alcatraz was a significant coast artillery bastion. Alcatraz was always a desolate place to be sentenced to, the Army used it for a stockade for military prisoners and Native Americans through out the time it controlled the island. In the 1930s the island was converted to a Federal penitentiary, which remained open until 1964. The island languished in neglect until the Native American protest take over in the 1970s. Finally, it was transferred to the National Park Service which gives tours of the prison facilities. A new tour program now allows for the visitation of some of the remaining Army structures on the island and most of the island has been opened to visitors.
 
Yerba Buena Island (Treasure Island)

City of San Francisco: The Treasure Island exit on the San Francisco Bay Bridge. Access by permission only.

Yerba Buena Island was used by the Army as it's first mining depot for mining San Francisco Bay. The Island is now under Navy jurisdiction and none of the Army structures are accessible.

Fort McDowell

Angel Island State Park: Ferries leave from both Fisherman's Wharf (summer only) in San Francisco and the City of Tiberion (all year) in Marin County.

Reserved in 1849 for military use, the island wasn't developed as a coastal defense position until the Civil War, when Camp Reynolds was established and four temporary artillery batteries were hastily built on the island. Later, three modern gun emplacements were built in the 1890s, and the post was named after Maj. Gen. Irwin McDowell, who commanded the Department of the Pacific beginning in 1864. The guns were removed by 1920 and the post served as an embarkation center for the Army and an isolation ward for immigrants and soldiers coming from the Far East. Later it was used as a Nike site.
Angel Island is now a California state park and is only accessible by boat or ferry from the mainland. The park is criscrossed with trails and roads and around every corner is something interestingómagnificent views; old buildings; Nike launch and radar facilities; a light house; gun emplacements; a old quarry and an impressive array of plant and animal life.
 
Fort Baker
Golden Gate National Recreation Area: The Marin Headlands section of the GGNRA is accessible from exits off of US Highway 101 just to the north of the Golden Gate Bridge.
 

Litigation over this property around Lime Point lasted from 1849 until 1866. When the Army finally gained control of the property, funds for the construction of a planned casemate fort were not available. The first emplacements were built in 1870 though these were not armed for long. When modern emplacements were built in the 1890s the post was named after Col. Edward Baker, a Senator from Oregon who died in an early Civil War battle. Today the land is part of GGNRA. Most of the old coast defense works can be visited.
 
Fort Barry

Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Marin Headlands Visitor Center West Marin Headlands exit off of US 101, just north of the Golden Gate Bridge. Follow road signs to Fort Barry and Marin Headlands Visitor Center.

When the first set of modern coast defense works were being built in the 1890s, the Lime Point Reservation was split in half, the eastern half becoming Fort Baker and the western half becoming Fort Barry, named after Brevet Maj. Gen. William F. Barry, an Artillery veteran of the Civil War. The artillery emplacements of Fort Barry were built in the vicinity of Point Bonita. The 12 inch gun emplacements of Battery Wallace were built during the 1920s, the only long range defensive work built on the west coast during the period between the world wars. A new 16" emplacement (Battery 129) was built on the boundary between Barry and Baker during WW II. The 1950s brought a Nike launch site, Site SF-88, to Fort Barry, which today has been restored to working condition complete with Nike missiles inside.

Fort Barry's headland vistas give unsurpassed views of the Golden Gate and San Francisco. The complete separation from the urban areas imparts a nice feeling of being in the wilderness. Old military buildings and bunkers abound for the curious. Some of Fort Barry's buildings are currently used as a youth hostel. The chapel now houses the Marin Headlands visitor center.

Fort Cronkhite

Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Access via the Marin Headlands and Fort Barry.

The post is located just across Rodeo Lagoon from Fort Barry. Authorized as a separate post in 1937 with the construction of a new 16" emplacement on Tennessee Ridge and named after Maj. Gen. Adelbert Cronkhite, the post is a fine surviving example of WW II military architecture in contrast to Fort Barry's turn of the century style. Chronkhite's many buildings are used today for classrooms and seminars, and it is the starting point for many trails over the vast semiwilderness areas of the Marin Headlands.
 
Benicia Arsenal

Private and City property, City of Benicia: Follow signs through the City of Benicia off of Interstate 780

Established in the 1850s on the northern shore of San Francisco Bay, Benicia is included in this list for the sake of completeness. Although not technically a harbor defense post, it was the Army's principle west coast ordnance depot from 1850 until WW II. Benicia Arsenal served the Army's west coast needs until after well WW II, when the cramped space in the growing urban area forced the closure of the post. Today, the land has been developed into an industrial park for the city and port of Benicia. Many of the old buildings have been remodeled for use as offices and warehouses by the tenants of the park. The historical aspects and "flavor" of the old post is being preserved while the buildings are being used for new functional roles. A museum, which is open on weekends is housed in the old "camel barn" on the northern edge of the old reserve.

 
Spanish Period

 Location

 Battery name

 Number of Guns

 Type of Gun

 Constructed

 Completed

 Decommisioned

 San Francisco

 Presidio

 ?

 Smoothbores

 1776

 ?

 1835

 Fort Point

 Castillo de San Joaquin

 15

 Smoothbores

 1793

 1794

 1835

 Point San Jose

 San Jose

  8

 Smoothbores

 1797

 ?

 ?
 
For all coastal defenses built in the smoothbore era, (Spanish, American Third system and Post-Civil War periods), the number of guns actually emplaced was usually less than the number of emplacements built. Many of the cannons were on hand and not emplaced and those numbers changed from year to year. In addition, there often were several different calibers of cannons present. The calibers of the Spanish era cannons were given by the weight of the round shot fired by the gun, i.e. a 42 pounder. The Americans had cannons of calibers given both in pounds or inches of bore. These are not delineated in the table as those of later years are.
 
Third System Period
 

 Location

 Battery name

 Number of Guns

 Type of Gun

 Constructed

 Completed

 Decommisioned

 San Francisco

Fort Point

 127

 Smoothbores

1854

 1861

 1886

 Alcatraz Island

 various

 95

 Smoothbores

 1854

 1856

 1890
 
The number of guns actually mounted were less than the number of emplacements built. The guns were 8" to 10" columbiads, mounted in naval carriages or in pintle barbettes. The Alcatraz batteries were substantially rebuilt several times during the 1860's and 70's. Fort Point was essentially complete in 1856, but not armed till 1861. Intially armed with Columbiads, it was rearmed with 8" and 10" Rodman Smoothbores and Parrot rifles, as they became available, as was Alcatraz.
 
Civil War Period
 

 Location

 Battery name

 Number of Guns

 Type of Gun

 Constructed

 Completed

 Decommisioned

Angel Island

Point Stuart

4

 Smoothbores

1863

 1864

 187(?) (1)

Angel Island

Point Knox

10

 Smoothbores

1863

 1863

? (1)

Angel Island

Point Blunt

7

 Smoothbores

1863

 Not Completed

? (1)

Angel Island

Water Battery

-

 Smoothbores

1864

 Not Completed

? (1)

Point San Jose

Black Point

12

 Smoothbores

 1864

 1864

 1898 (2)
 
(1) The Angel Island batteries were temporary earthworks. No trace remains today.
(2) The Point San Jose battery was built of brick. It was buried sometime in the early part of the twentieth century. The National Park Service has uncovered it and is restoring the works today.
 
Post Civil War Period

 Location

 Battery name

Number of Guns

 Type of Gun

 Type of Carriage

 Constructed

 Completed

 Decommisioned
Presidio

 West

 30

 Rifled Smoothbores
 Pintle Mounted Barbette Carriage

 1870

1873

 1890 (1)
Presidio

 East

 30

 Rifled Smoothbores
 Pintle Mounted Barbette Carriage

 1870

1873

 1890 (1)
Alcatraz Island

 various

 36

 Rifled Smoothbores
 Pintle Mounted Barbette Carriage

 1870

1876

 (2)
Lime Point

 Glavelly Beach

 12

 Rifled Smoothbores
 Pintle Mounted Barbette Carriage

 1870

1876

 1898 (3)
Lime Point

 Cliff

 2

 Rifled Smoothbores
 Pintle Mounted Barbette Carriage

 1870

-

 1898 (4)
Lime Point

 Ridge

 4

 Rifled Smoothbores
 Pintle Mounted Barbette Carriage

 1870

1876

 1901 (5)
Lime Point

 Cavallo

 17

 Rifled Smoothbores
 Pintle Mounted Barbette Carriage

 1872

1876

 1905 (6)
 
(1) East and West Batteries (unofficial designations) were built to hold 8", 10" and 15" Rodman smoothbores and Parrott rifles and some mortars. Not all of the ordinance was mounted. East Battery is pretty much intact today, but ony two magazines remain of West Battery, as it was built over by later Endicott-era construction
(2) The number of guns actually mounted were less than the number of emplacements built. The guns were 8-10" columbiads, mounted in naval carriages or in pintle barbettes. The Alcatraz batteries were substantially rebuilt several times during the 1860's and 70's. Fort Point was essentially complete in 1856, but not armed till 1861. Intially armed with Columbiads, it was rearmed with 8" and 10" Rodman Smoothbores and Parrot rifles, as they became available, as was Alcatraz.
(3) The Army emplaced one 15-inch Rodman at Gravely Beach in 1873, but the battery was never actually "in service" since there was no garrison at Fort Baker until the late 1890s. The gun's position was obliterated circa 1900 during construction of Battery Kirby. Today, only one magazine remains of the Gravelly Beach Battery .
(4) Cliff Battery was located at the extreme tip of Lime Point Ridge. It was totally demolished during construction of Battery Spencer. It was never armed.
(5) Ridge Battery consisted of four 15-inch Rodman emplacements located mid-way along the ridge and more than a hundred yards north of Cliff Battery/Battery Spencer. It was first armed in 1893 with four 15-inch Rodman smoothbores transferred from the Presidio of San Francisco. (They were dismounted at Fort Scott to make way for construction of Battery Cranston and Marcus Miller.) Ridge Battery was disarmed circa 1909. It wasn't affected by the construction of Cliff Battery, and its four positions are still visible as you walk up the "covered way" to Battery Spencer.
(6) Battery Cavallo wasn't armed until 1900 when three 8-inch converted Rodman rifles were installed to cover the minefield in front of Alcatraz. These guns were also removed circa 1905.
Endicott Period

 Location

 Battery name

 Number of Guns

 Type of Gun

 Type of Carriage

 Constructed

 Completed

 Decommisioned

Fort Winfield Scott
Lancaster

 2

12 Inch M1895

 M1897 Disappearing

 1896

 1900

 1918 (1)

Fort Winfield Scott
Lancaster

 1

12 Inch M1888MI

 M1896 Disappearing

 1897

 1900

 1918 (1)

Fort Winfield Scott

 Cranston

 2

10 Inch M1888MII

  M1896 Disappearing

 1897

 1898

 1943 (1)

Fort Winfield Scott

Marcus Miller

 3

10 Inch M1894

  M1894 Disappearing

 1890

 1898

 1920

Fort Winfield Scott

 Boutelle

 3

5 Inch M1896

 M1896 Ballanced Pillar

 1898

1901

 1918

Fort Winfield Scott

 Godfrey

 2

12 Inch M1888

 M1892 Barbette

 1892

1896

 1943

Fort Winfield Scott

 Dynamite

 3

15 Inch Pneumatic Dynamite

-

 1893

1894

 1904 (2)

Fort Winfield Scott

Saffold

 2

12 Inch M1888MII

 M1892 Barbette

 1896

1899

 1943

Fort Winfield Scott

 Crosby

 2

6 Inch M1897MI

 M1898 Disappearing

 1899

1900

 1943

Fort Winfield Scott

 Chamberlin

 4

6 Inch M1903

 M1903 Disappearing

 1904

-

 1943 (3)

Fort Winfield Scott

 Baldwin

 2

3 Inch M1898

  M1898 Masking Pedestal

 1901

 1903

 1920 (1)

 Fort Winfield Scott

 Sherwood

 2

5 Inch M1900

M1903 Pedestal

 1900

 1900

 1917 (4)

Fort Winfield Scott
Slaughter

 3

8 Inch M1888

 M1896 Disappearing

 1896

 1900

 1917 (1)

Fort Winfield Scott

 Blaney

 4

3 Inch M1898

  M1898 Masking Pedestal

 1902

 1903

1920

Fort Winfield Scott

 Howe

 8

12 Inch Mortar M1886

  M1891 Mortar

 1893

 1895

1920(5)

Fort Winfield Scott

 Wagner

 8

12 Inch Mortar M1886

  M1891 Mortar

 1893

 1895

1920 (5)

Fort Winfield Scott

 Stotsenburg

 8

12 Inch Mortar M1890MI

  M1896 Mortar

 1897

 -

1943 (6)

Fort Winfield Scott

 McKinnon

 8

12 Inch Mortar M1890MI

  M1896 Mortar

 1897

 -

1943 (6)

Fort Mason

 Burnham

 1

 8 Inch M1888

 M1896 Disappearing

 1900

-

 1909

Fort Miley

 Chester

 2

 12 Inch M1894

 M1896 Disappearing

 1899

1903

 1943 (7)

Fort Miley

 Chester

 1

 12 Inch M1888MII

 M1892 Barbette

 1899

1903

 1943 (7)

Fort Miley

 Livingston

 8

12 Inch Mortar M1890MI

  M1896 Mortar

 1899

1902

1943 (8)

Fort Miley

 Springer

 8

12 Inch Mortar M1890MI

  M1896 Mortar

 1899

1902

1943 (8)

Fort Baker

 Spencer

 3

 12 Inch M1888

 M1892 Barbette

 1893

1897

 1943 (7)

Fort Baker

 Kirby

 2

 12 Inch M1894

 M1897 Disappearing

 1900

-

 1941 (7)

Fort Baker

 Duncan

 2

 8 Inch M1888

 M1892 Barbette

 1898

-

1917

Fort Baker

Wagner

 2

 5 Inch M1896

 M1896 Ballanced Pillar

 1901

-

 1917

Fort Baker

 Yates

 6

 3 Inch M1902

 M1902 Ballanced Pillar

 1903

1905

 1943 (9)

Fort McDowell

Drew

 1

 8 Inch M1888

 M1892 Barbette

 1898

-

1915

Fort McDowell

 Wallace

 1

 8 Inch M1888

 M1896 Disappearing

 1901

-

1920

Fort McDowell

 Ledyard

 2

 5 Inch M1900

 M1903 Pedastal

 1901

-

1920

Fort Barry
Mendell

 2

12 Inch M1895

 M1897 Disappearing

 1901

 1902

 1943

Fort Barry

 Alexander

 8

12 Inch Mortar M1890

  M1896MI Mortar

 1900

 -

1941

 Fort Barry

 Guthrie

 2

6 Inch M1900

M1900 Pedestal

 1905

 -

1945

 Fort Barry

 Smith

 2

6 Inch M1900

M1900 Pedestal

 1905

 -

1945

 Fort Barry

 Rathbone

 2

6 Inch M1900

M1900 Pedestal

 1905

 -

1945

Fort Barry

 McIndoe

 2

6 Inch M1900

M1900 Pedestal

 1905

 -

1945

 Fort Barry

 O'Rorke

 4

3 Inch M1903

M1903 Pedestal

 1905

 -

1945
 
(1) In 1933 the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge resulted in the burial of Batteries Slaughter and Baldwin. Battery Lancaster was partially covered by the toll plaza, but one emplacement remains just to the east.
(2) In 1942, Battery Dynamite was converted to the HECP-HDCP for San Francisco. It was inactivated in 1946. The National Park Service uses the area for storage today.
(3) Two of Battery Chamberlin's guns were removed in 1918. They were replaced in 1930s with two 6" M1900 guns on M1900 pedistal mounts. In 1976, the National Park Service replaced one 6" M1905 gun mounted in a working M1903 disappearing carriage that was donated by the Smithsonian. This gun originally came from Battery Livingston, Fort Hamilton, HDNY. The two guns from that battery were re-emplaced in Battery Schofield at the West Point Military Acadamy for some time before given to the Smithsonian. The other gun is now located at Fort Pickens, Penascola, Florida.
(4) In 1917, temporary platforms were built for 8 mortars from Battery Stotsenburg-McKinnon. In 1919 two platforms were built for 5" guns from Battery Sherwood. The guns were removed later that year. Both emplacements have been buried.
(5) Sometime after all of the mortars were removed from Batteries Howe and Wagner, all but one of Howe's emplacements were buried.
(6) Two mortars each from Batteries Stotenburg and McKinnon were emplaced in Battery Walter Howe at Fort Funston in 1917. Battery Walter Howe was buried after its guns were removed.
(7) Battery Chester had one gun removed in 1918. It was replaced by a gun from Battery Spencer in 1918. One gun was removed from Battery Kirby in the 1920s.
(8) Many mortar batteries around the United States had 2 mortars removed from each pit in 1917-1918. Many of these mortars were remounted in railroad car carriages for use overseas.
(9) Four guns from Battery Yates were removed in 1942. Two were emplaced on top of old Fort Point and two were emplaced at Gravelly Beach, for use as Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat guns. Later the Gravely Beach guns were also moved to Fort Point.
 
World War I Temporary

 Location

 Battery name

 Number of Guns

 Type of Gun

 Type of Carriage

 Constructed

 Completed

 Decommisioned

Fort Miley
Loren H. Call

 2

5 Inch M1900
M1903 Pedastal

 1914

 1916

 1921 (1)

Fort Funston

 Walter Howe

 4

12 Inch M1890MI 

 M1896MI Mortar

 1917

 1919

 1945 (2)

Fort Funston
Lawrence L. Bruff

 2

5 Inch M1900
M1903 Pedastal

 1919

 1919

 1919 (2)

(1) Battery Call was built for the 5" guns guns removed from Battery Ledyard, Fort McDowell, during the Japanese scare of 1914-1915. The emplacement was destroyed by subsequent construction for the Veterans Hospital.
(2) In 1917, temporary platforms were built for 8 mortars from Battery Stotsenburg-McKinnon. In 1919 two platforms were built for 5" guns from Battery Sherwood. The guns were removed later that year. Both emplacements have been destroyed.
 
Post World War I

 Location

 Battery name

 Number of Guns

 Type of Gun

 Type of Carriage

 Constructed

 Completed

 Decommisioned

Fort Winfield Scott
Anti-Aircraft

 2

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedastal

 1920

 1920

 1925 (1)

Fort Barry
Anti-Aircraft

 2

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedastal

 1920

 1920

194?

Fort Barry
Elmer J. Wallace

 2

12 Inch M1895A4
M1917 Long Range Barbette

 1922

 1928

 1946 (2)

Fort Miley
Anti-Aircraft

 2

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedastal

 1920

 -

-

Fort Funston
Anti-Aircraft

 2

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedastal

 1925

 1925

 1945 (1)
 
(1) Fort Scott's AA guns transfered to Fort Funston.
(2) The construction for Battery Wallace began in 1917, but the guns were not proofed until 1928. During 1942-1943, the guns were casemated and the battery was stood down from active status in 1944.
1940 Program and World War II Temporary
 

 Location

 Battery name

 Number of Guns

 Type of Gun

 Type of Carriage

 Constructed

 Completed

 Decommisioned

Fort Funston

Richmond P. Davis

2

16 inch MarkIIMI

 Casemated Long Range Barbette M1919M5

 1935

 1940

1948

Fort Funston

Bluff

4

 155mm GPF

 Panama Mount

 1942

 1942

194?

Fort Funston
Anti-Aircraft #5

 3

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedastal

 -

 -

-

Fort Miley

 Point Lobos

2

6 inch

Naval Pedastal

1942

 1942

 1945

Fort Miley

 243

2

 6 inch M1903

 Shielded Long Range Barbette M4

 1943

 1943

 1949

Fort Miley

 Lands End

4

90mm M1

 Fixed M3 and Mobile M1

 1943
 

 1945

Fort Miley
Anti-Aircraft #4

 3

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedastal

 -

 -

-

Fort Miley

 Buck

2

40mm

Mobile

1943

1943

 -

Fort Winfield Scott

 Gate

 2

 3 Inch M1902

 M1902 Ballanced Pillar

1942

1942

 1946 (1)

Fort Winfield Scott

 Point

 2

 3 Inch M1902

M1902 Ballanced Pillar

1945

1945

 1946 (1)

Fort Winfield Scott

Baker

4

90mm M1

 Fixed M3 and Mobile M1

 1943

 1943

 1946

Fort Winfield Scott
Anti-Aircraft #3

 3

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedastal

1942

1942

?

Fort McDowell

 Blunt

4

90mm M1

 Fixed M3 and Mobile M1

 -

 -

 -

Fort McDowell

 Knox

2

40mm

Mobile

-

-

 -

Fort McDowell

 Knox

2

40mm

Mobile

-

-

 -

Fort Baker

 Gravelly Beach

 2

 3 Inch M1902

M1902 Ballanced Pillar

1942

1942

 1943 (1)

Fort Baker

 Gravelly Beach

4

90mm M1

 Fixed M3 and Mobile M1

1943

 -

 -

Fort Barry
Anti-Aircraft #2

 3

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedastal

1942

1942

?

Fort Barry

Battery Construction 129

2

16 inch

 Casemated Long Range Barbette

 1942

 Not Completed

-

Fort Barry

 Bonita

2

40mm

Mobile

-

-

 -

Fort Cronkhite

Townsley

2

16 inch MarkIIMI

 Casemated Long Range Barbette M1919M5

 1937

 1940

1948

Fort Cronkhite
Anti-Aircraft #1

 3

3 Inch M1917
M1917 Pedastal

1941

1941

?

 Milagra Ridge Military Reservation

 Battery Construction 244

 2

 6 inch T2M1

 Shielded Long Range Barbette M4

 1942

 1947

 1950

 Milagra Ridge Military Reservation

Battery Construction 130

2

16 inch

 Casemated Long Range Barbette

 Not Built

-

-

St.Francis and Park

 -

2

40mm

Mobile

-

-

 -

Sausilito Point

 -

2

40mm

Mobile

-

-

 -

Half Moon Bay
 

4

 155mm

 Panama Mount

 1942

 1942

194?
Morro Bay
 

4

155mm

  Panama Mount

1942

1943 

194?
 
(1) Four guns from Battery Yates were removed in 1942. Two were emplaced on top of old Fort Point and two were emplaced at Gravelly Beach, for use as Anti-Motor Torpedo Boat guns. Later the Gravely Beach guns were also moved to Fort Point.
For Further Reading
Chin, Brian
Artillery at the Golden Gate: the Harbor Defenses of San Francisco in WW II
Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., Missoula, MT., 1994
 
Clauss, Francis J.
Angel Island, Jewel of San Francisco Bay
Angel Island Association, Tiburon, CA 1991
 
Delgado, James D.
Alcatraz, Island of Change
Golden Gate National Park Association, San Francisco, CA 1991
 
Martini, John A.
Fort Point, Sentry at the Golden Gate
Golden Gate National Park Association, San Francisco, CA 1991
 
Martini, John A.
Fortress Alcatraz, Guardian of the Golden Gate
Pacific Monograph, Kailua, HI 1990
 
John Soennichsen
Miwoks to Missiles: A History of Angel Island
Angel Island Association, 2001
 
Martini, John A. and Haller, Stephan A.
What We Have We Will Defend: An Interim History and Preservation Plan for Nike Site SF-88L, Fort Barry, CA
National Park Service, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, San Francisco, CA 1998
 
Thompson, Erwin N.
Historic Resource Study, Seacoast Fortifications, San Francisco Harbor, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California
Denver Service Center NPS, Denver CO 1979

On the Web
 
Gun Batteries of San Francisco
 
Seacoast Fortifications Preservation Manual: Golden Gate National Recreation Area
 
San Francisco Defense Guns in World War II
 
Alcatraz Insland National Historic Site, San Francisco
 
Fort Point National Historic Site, San Francisco
 
Angel Island State Park, Tiburon (California State Parks)
 
Angel Island State Park, Tiburon (Angel Island Association)
 
Nike Missile Site 88-L, Marin Headlands
 
Presidio of San Francisco
 
Golden Gate National Recreation Area

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